Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 28, 2019; 25(16): 1928-1935
Published online Apr 28, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i16.1928
Table 1 Upper gastrointestinal tract manifestations of childhood inflammatory bowel disease
EntityPrevalence (%)
Histologic diagnostic criteriaDifferential diagnosis
Lymphocytic esophagitis12-28[15,20]7[15,20]> 20 IELs/HPF; No significant granulocytes; Mucosal injury (edema; dyskeratosis).Candidiasis, lichen planus esophagitis, lichenoid esophagitis.
Focally enhanced gastritis54-55[31,32]21-30[31,32]Focal pit injury (lymphohistiocytes ± plasma cells or granulocytes); Relatively normal background mucosa.Lymphoid aggregate, H. pylori-associated gastritis.
Duodenitis33-48[13,35,36,37]0-29[13,35,36,37]Cryptitis; Villous blunting; Increased IELs (> 20 IELs/100 enterocytes); Lamina propria eosinophiliaCeliac disease, H. pylori infection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, bacterial overgrowth, autoimmune diseases
Epithelioid granulomas2.7 (esophagus); 20.1 (stomach); 3.8 (duodenum)[40]0Collection of histiocytes; Non-caseating; Surrounded by lymphocytes; Not associated with ruptured gland/cryptChronic granulomatous disease, common variable immunodeficiency, and infection