Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 28, 2019; 25(16): 1928-1935
Published online Apr 28, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i16.1928
Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: A pathological review
Dua Abuquteish, Juan Putra
Dua Abuquteish, Juan Putra, Division of Pathology, Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
Author contributions: Abuquteish D reviewed the literature and drafted the manuscript; Putra J provided overall intellectual input, reviewed the literature, acquired the histological images, and edited the final version of the manuscript; all authors approved the final version to be published.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Juan Putra, MD, Staff Physician, Division of Pathology, Department of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.
Telephone: +1-416-8135966 Fax: +1-416-8135974
Received: March 19, 2019
Peer-review started: March 19, 2019
First decision: March 27, 2019
Revised: April 3, 2019
Accepted: April 10, 2019
Article in press: April 10, 2019
Published online: April 28, 2019
Core Tip

Core tip: Upper gastrointestinal tract inflammation is frequently observed in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Distinct inflammatory patterns such as lymphocytic esophagitis and focally enhanced gastritis are helpful in rendering the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in an otherwise non-specific case. Epithelioid granulomas are the only specific microscopic finding to distinguish Crohn disease from ulcerative colitis. Meanwhile, duodenal inflammation demonstrates various non-specific histologic findings in the setting of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. This review highlights the diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis of each pathologic finding.