Published online Apr 28, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i16.1928
Peer-review started: March 19, 2019
First decision: March 27, 2019
Revised: April 3, 2019
Accepted: April 10, 2019
Article in press: April 10, 2019
Published online: April 28, 2019
Core tip: Upper gastrointestinal tract inflammation is frequently observed in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Distinct inflammatory patterns such as lymphocytic esophagitis and focally enhanced gastritis are helpful in rendering the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in an otherwise non-specific case. Epithelioid granulomas are the only specific microscopic finding to distinguish Crohn disease from ulcerative colitis. Meanwhile, duodenal inflammation demonstrates various non-specific histologic findings in the setting of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. This review highlights the diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis of each pathologic finding.