Opinion Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 21, 2019; 25(15): 1783-1796
Published online Apr 21, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i15.1783
Table 1 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (hsa04932)
Gene symbol; description
IL6; interleukin 6
IL6R; interleukin 6 receptor
SOCS3; suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
TNF; tumor necrosis factor
TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A
NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1
RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
INS; insulin
INSR; insulin receptor
IRS1; insulin receptor substrate 1
IRS2; insulin receptor substrate 2
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3
AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1
AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2
AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3
GSK3A; glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha
GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta
NR1H3; nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3
RXRA; retinoid X receptor alpha
SREBF1; sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1
MLX; MLX, MAX dimerization protein
MLXIP; MLX interacting protein
MLXIPL; MLX interacting protein like
PKLR; pyruvate kinase L/R
LEP; leptin
LEPR; leptin receptor
ADIPOQ; adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing
ADIPOR1; adiponectin receptor 1
ADIPOR2; adiponectin receptor 2
PRKAA1; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1
PRKAA2; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 2
PRKAB1; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit beta 1
PRKAB2; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit beta 2
PRKAG1; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 1
PRKAG3; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 3
PRKAG2; protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 2
PPARA; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha
CDC42; cell division cycle 42
RAC1; Rac family small GTPase 1
MAP3K11; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11
MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8
MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10
MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
ITCH; itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
ERN1; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1
TRAF2; TNF receptor associated factor 2
MAP3K5; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5
JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit
IL1A; interleukin 1 alpha
IL1B; interleukin 1 beta
IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta
XBP1; X-box binding protein 1
CEBPA; CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha
CYP2E1; cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1
FASLG; Fas ligand
CXCL8; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8
TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta 1
EIF2AK3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3
EIF2S1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4
DDIT3; DNA damage inducible transcript 3
BCL2L11; BCL2 like 11
BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator
FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor
CASP8; caspase 8
BID; BH3 interacting domain death agonist
CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic
CASP3; caspase 3
CASP7; caspase 7
NDUFV1-3; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit V1 –V3
NDUFA1-3; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit A1-3
NDUFA4; NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated
NDUFA4L2; NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated like 2
NDUFA5-13; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit A5-A13
NDUFAB1; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit AB1
NDUFB1-11; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B1-B11
NDUFS1-S8; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S1 –S8
NDUFC1; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit C1
NDUFC2; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit C2
NDUFC2-KCTD14; NDUFC2-KCTD14 readthrough
SDHA; succinate dehydrogenase complex flavoprotein subunit A
SDHB; succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B
SDHC; succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C
SDHD; succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D
UQCRFS1; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1
CYTB; cytochrome b
CYC1; cytochrome c1
UQCRC1; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1
UQCRC2; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 2
UQCRH; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein
UQCRHL; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein like
UQCRB; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein
UQCRQ; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex III subunit VII
UQCR10; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X
UQCR11; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit XI
COX3; cytochrome c oxidase III
COX1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
COX2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit II
COX4I2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I2
COX4I1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1
COX5A; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A
COX5B; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5B
COX6A1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1
COX6A2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A2
COX6B1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1
COX6B2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B2
COX6C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C
COX7A1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A1
COX7A2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2
COX7A2L; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2 like
COX7B; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7B
COX7B2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7B2
COX7C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7C
COX8C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8C
COX8A; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8A
Table 2 Associations between variants in locus that are targets of novel drugs for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and multiple traits from individuals of the United Kindom Biobank
NR1H4 (FXR) Farnesoid X-Activated Receptor
K85 Acute pancreatitisrs763720511009457116.963890333
Immature reticulocyte fractionrs357121009713555.607954097
Impedance of arm (right)rs14097911008513075.152661824
Impedance of whole bodyrs14097911008513074.772216099
high cholesterolrs79674681008537924.543497322
N30-N39 Other diseases of urinary systemrs793060231009384704.420628035
H81 Disorders of vestibular functionrs1406446351009233594.069764347
PPARδ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta)
Whole body fat-free massrs360183873538687259.74853212
Hip circumferencers360183873538687249.20670564
Whole body fat massrs360183873538687237.00113934
Body fat percentagers360183873538687220.45328464
Monocyte percentagers94699823526754845.86340625
Platelet critrs339592283525939721.6726615
White blood cell (leukocyte) countrs93805003526623121.54556677
Platelet countrs96581113536453417.88276186
Neutrophill countrs93805003526623117.11253462
Eosinophill percentagers23956253540546115.34904201
Lymphocyte percentagers9658079353275779.741626151
K90 Intestinal malabsorptionrs77714743532044711.86097145
MPC1 (Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1)
Mean platelet (thrombocyte) volumers109461601667578187.378512135
Platelet countrs37281667786795.285527735
Red blood cell (erythrocyte) countrs69161281667593134.825911105
M31 Other necrotising vasculopathiesrs74495941667744294.699926505
dyspepsia / indigestionrs69099511667581984.594790286
MAP3K5 (ASK-1) (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5)
Mean platelet (thrombocyte) volumers692438713708294814.48853109
Eosinophill countrs93258913708313813.39556873
Lymphocyte percentagers692438713708294810.84396601
Neutrophill countrs692438713708294810.59715422
Platelet countrs93215701370956799.792150289
White blood cell (leukocyte) countrs69243871370829489.574319083
Eosinophill percentagers9325891370831389.344890391
Monocyte countrs93857751371449209.1157769
Mean reticulocyte volumers93857751371449208.817927896
Platelet distribution widthrs69243871370829488.001963098
THRβ (Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta)
Mean corpuscular volumers86978524347800152.2743497
Mean corpuscular haemoglobinrs86978424348008143.9371173
Red blood cell (erythrocyte) countrs8697852434780061.9076303
Mean reticulocyte volumers8697842434800843.97976306
Reticulocyte countrs15053072434333016.57632823
Immature reticulocyte fractionrs8697842434800815.67096843
Monocyte countrs124856942434610911.11788547
Lymphocyte countrs130965292423203510.58643203
Red blood cell (erythrocyte) distribution widthrs21671152433973410.44361306
C56 Malignant neoplasm of ovaryrs1893972552438973212.2277003
Trunk fat-free massrs13100197244914848.731024419
Trunk predicted massrs13100197244914848.614769205
Leg fat percentage (left)rs1349265241593878.323233252