Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 14, 2018; 24(34): 3927-3957
Published online Sep 14, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i34.3927
Table 1 Hepatitis A virus of overall prevalence at Somali population in Somalia and Somali immigrants n (%)
AuthorPublication yearTotalHepatitis A virusSettingPopulation
Faustini et al[19]1994213204 (96)ItalyImmigrants
Bile et al[16]1992596572 (96)SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[16]19927645 (59.2)SomaliaLocal
Mohamud et al[15]1992593534 (90)SomaliaLocal
Sebastiani et al[18]19848678 (90.6)SomaliaLocal
Table 2 Age pattern of hepatitis A infection
Age groupAuthor/Publication yearTotalCasesTotalHealthySerology
0-11 moMohamud et al 1992[15]52325220Anti-HAV
1-11 yrMohamud et al 1992[15]18917618913Anti-HAV
Sebastiani et al 1984[18]3533352Anti-HAV
Faustini et al 1994[19]21318621327Anti-HAV
Bile et al 1992[16]23422023414Anti-HAV
11-19 yrMohamud et al 1992[15]6258624Anti-HAV
Sebastiani et al 1984[18]2120211Anti-HAV
Bile et al 1992[16]3623533629Anti-HAV
20-39 yrMohamud et al 1992[15]16415316411Anti-HAV
Sebastiani et al 1984[18]1916193Anti-HAV
40+ yrMohamud et al 1992[15]12611112615Anti-HAV
Sebastiani et al 1984[18]119112Anti-HAV
Table 3 Summary of studies of included studies on the prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection in a Somali population in Somalia and Somali immigrants (1977-2014) n (%)
No.AuthorPublication yearTotalHBsAgHealthySettingPopulation
1Padovese et al[39]201450031 (6.2)469ItalyImmigrants
2Kadle et al[38]201215661 (39.1)95SomaliaLocal
3Shire et al[36]20121109151 (13.6)958United StatesImmigrants
4Khadjio et al[37]201114759 (40.1)88SomaliaLocal
5Aweis et al[35]200143925 (5.6)414United KingdomImmigrants
6Nur et al[33]200019834 (17.1)164SomaliaLocal
7Faustini et al[19]19942137 (3.2)206ItalyImmigrants
8Bile et al[34]199312429 (13.5)95SomaliaLocal
9Bile et al[16]199259695 (15.9)501SomaliaLocal
10Mohamud et al[15]19921272134 (10.5)1138SomaliaLocal
11Bile et al[32]199123267 (28.8)165SomaliaLocal
12Aceti et al[31]19891138220 (19.3)918SomaliaLocal
13Bile et al[40]19911583 (1.9)155SomaliaLocal
14Aceti et al[30]199110452 (50)52SomaliaLocal
15Jama et al[29]198721849 (22.4)169SomaliaLocal
16Bile et al[28]198794678 (8.2)868SomaliaLocal
17Sebastiani et al[27]198538346 (12)337SomaliaLocal
18Nuti et al[26]197910249 (48)58SomaliaLocal
19Nuti et al[25]197915722 (14)135SomaliaLocal
20Nuti et al[24]197810124 (23.7)77SomaliaLocal
21Nuti et al[23]197922280 (36)142SomaliaLocal
22Delia et al[22]1977155118 (76.1)37SomaliaLocal
23Sebastiani et al[18]19848611 (12.7)75SomaliaLocal
Table 4 Hepatitis B virus infection prevalence rates among pregnant women
Bile et al[28]198713514 (10.3%)121MogadishuPregnant women
Jama et al[29]19875219 (37%)33MogadishuPregnant women
Table 5 Hepatitis B infection prevalence rates among Somali children
Sebastiani et al[27]19852192511%194Jowhar, Bur-Hakaba, Kismaio and AfgoyChildren living in four villages
Bile et al[16]19925969516%501Mogadishu areaChildren in government-operated residence for abandoned children in Shebeli
Bile et al[16]19927634%73MogadishuChildren in government-operated residences for abandoned children in SOS institution
Bile et al[40]199110600%106Lower ShabelleChildren living in Mukay Dumis
Nur et al[30]20003626%34MogadishuHospitalized children
Bile et al[28]1987428113%417MogadishuChildren living in Mogadishu
Jama et al[29]19872614%25MogadishuNewborn babies
Table 6 Studies among patients with chronic liver disease (including hepatocellular carcinoma) in Somalia n (%)
Shire et al[36]2012305 (17.9)25United StatesImmigrants
Kadle et al[38]201215661 (39.1)95SomaliaLocal
Khadija et al[37]201114759 (40.1)88SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[34]19936223 (37.1)39SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[32]199111644 (37.9)72SomaliaLocal
Aceti et al[30]199110452 (50)52SomaliaLocal
Table 7 Age pattern of hepatitis B virus infection n (%)
Age groupAuthorPublication yearTotalHBsAgHealthy
0-20Sebastiani et al[40]198521925 (11)194
Bile et al[28]198742811 (6)417
Bile et al[40]19911191 (1)118
Bile et al[16]199259695 (16)501
Sebastiani et al[18]1984567 (13)49
Total1418139 (9.8)1279
20-39Sebastiani et al[40]19859413 (14)81
Bile et al[28]198744262 (14)380
Bile et al[40]1991362 (6)34
Sebastiani et al[18]1984193 (16)16
Total59180 (14)511
40+Sebastiani et al[40]1985708 (11)62
Bile et al[28]19877610 (13)66
Bile et al[40]199130 (0)3
Sebastiani et al[18]1984111 (9.1)10
Total16019 (11.8)141
Table 8 Risk groups and hepatitis B virus
Nuti et al[24]197913533102Patients with leprosy
Nuti et al[24]1979871077Patients with leprosy
Nuti et al[23]197854846Patients with schistosomiasis
Nuti et al[26]1979671354Patients with schistosomiasis
Delia et al[22]197715552103Patients with ancylostomiasis
Delia et al[22]197715540115Patients with schistosomiasis
Delia et al[22]197715515140Patients with leprosy
Delia et al[22]197715511144Patients with leprosy
Nuti et al[25]1979553322Patients with acute viral hepatitis
Jama et al[29]1987851768Female Prostitutes
Nur et al[33]200036234Hospitalized children
Nur et al[33]2000471037Hospitalized adult
Table 9 Summary of studies on the overall prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection in a Somali population in Somalia and Somali immigrants (1970-2016)
Daw et al[43]2016201216420121848LibiyaImmigrants
Padovese et al[39]20145003500497ItalyImmigrants
Kadle et al[38]201215630156126SomaliaLocal
Shire et al[36]201285478854776United StatesImmigrants
Khadjio et al[37]201114715147132SomaliaLocal
Nur et al[33]20002566256250SomaliaLocal
Faustini et al[19]19942135213208ItalyImmigrants
Watts et al[41]1994438843090SomaliaLocal
Aceti et al[42]199388535885850SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[34]19931242912495SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[16]19925969596587SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[16]19927607676SomaliaLocal
Table 10 Studies on hepatitis C virus among risk groups in Somalia
Aceti et al[42]19932870287278MogadishuHospitalized children with diseases other than hepatitis
Watts et al[41]19942364236232Mogadishu, Marka, KismayoFemale prostitutes
Nur et al[33]20004214241MogadishuHospitalized children with measles, tuberculosis, anemia and other febrile illnesses
Watts et al[41]19948028078Mogadishu, Marka, KismayoSexually transmitted disease patients
Nur et al[33]20005745753MogadishuHospitalized adults with tuberculosis, malaria, acute respiratory infections, and unknown diagnosis (no clinically evident case of hepatitis)
Aceti et al[42]19931794179175MogadishuMixed populations (98 prisoners and 81 psychiatric patients)
Table 11 Studies on hepatitis C among blood donors
Nur et al[33]20001571156MogadishuBlood donors
Aceti et al[42]19933093306MogadishuBlood donors
Table 12 Studies on distribution genotypes of hepatitis C virus infection in Somalia
Type of genotypeAuthor/Publication YearTotalCasesHealthySerology
Genotype 1Daw et al[43] /2016781860Anti-HCV
Genotype 1Shire et al[36] / 201241833Anti-HCV
Genotype 2Daw et al[43] /201678078Anti-HCV
Genotype 2Shire et al[36] / 201241041Anti-HCV
Genotype 3Daw et al[43] /2016782058Anti-HCV
Genotype 3Shire et al[36] / 2012411031Anti-HCV
Genotype 4Daw et al[43] /2016783840Anti-HCV
Genotype 4Shire et al[36] / 2012411724Anti-HCV
Genotype 5Daw et al[43] /201678276Anti-HCV
Genotype 5Shire et al[36] / 201241110Anti-HCV
Genotype 6Shire et al[36] / 201241040Anti-HCV
Table 13 Studies on hepatitis C virus infection among Somali children
Bile et al[16]19925969596587Mogadishu areaChildren in government-operated residences for abandoned children in Shebeli
Bile et al[16]19927607676Mogadishu areaChildren in government-operated residence for abandoned children in SOS institution
Nur et al[33]20004214241MogadishuHospitalized children
Aceti et al[42]19932870287278MogadishuHospitalized children with diseases other than hepatitis
Table 14 Studies on hepatitis C virus infection among patients with chronic liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, in Somalia
Shire et al[36]20123022308United StatesImmigrants
Kadle et al[38]201215630156126SomaliaLocal
Khadija et al[37]201114715147132SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[34]199362256237SomaliaLocal
Aceti et al[42]19931102811082SomaliaLocal
Table 15 Summary of studies on overall prevalence of hepatitis D viral infection of HBsAg-positive carriers in the Somali population in Somalia and Somali immigrants (1970-2016) n (%)
AuthorYearTotalHepatitis D virusHealthySettingPopulation
Aceti et al[31]198922037 (16.8)138SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[32]19916720 (30)47SomaliaLocal
Aceti et al[30]19915226 (50)26SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[34]19932910 (34.4)19SomaliaLocal
Faustini et al[19]199470 (0)7ItalyImmigrants
Total37593 (24.8)237
Table 16 Studies among patients with chronic liver disease (including hepatocellular carcinoma) in Somalia n (%)
AuthorYearTotalHepatitis D virusTotalHealthySettingPopulation
Bile et al[34]1993239 (39.1)2314SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[32]19914417 (38.6)4427SomaliaLocal
Aceti et al[30]19915226 (50)5226SomaliaLocal
Total11952 (43.6)11967
Table 17 Studies on hepatitis E virus in Somalia n (%)
AuthorYearTotalHepatitis E virusHealthySettingPopulation
Burans et al[47]19943120 (64.5)11SomaliaLocal
Mushahwar et al[45]19931115 (4.5)106SomaliaLocal
Bile et al[46]1994145128 (88.2)17SomaliaLocal
Total287153 (53.3)134