Published online Sep 14, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i34.3927
Peer-review started: March 17, 2018
First decision: April 11, 2018
Revised: May 25, 2018
Accepted: June 21, 2018
Article in press: June 21, 2018
Published online: September 14, 2018
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem affecting several hundred million people globally. The most common types of viral hepatitis are six distinct types (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G viruses), and they may present in acute form or chronic form causes substantial morbidity and mortality (including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma).
In the field of viral hepatitis, there is a lack of researches last three decades in country and all articles about viral hepatitis published and unpublished are scattered. In this systematic review and meta-analysis the authors aim to provide a clear understanding of viral hepatitis epidemiology and their clinical burdens in Somalia according to the related documents published and unpublished articles during the last decades.
The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of all viral hepatitis in Somalia especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and to inform public health practitioners, researchers and policy makers, and to be a baseline data for future Hepatology researches in the country.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search of published studies on viral hepatitis was performed from 1977-2016 in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, World Health Organization African Index Medicus and the Africa Journals Online databases, as well as on the Ministry of Health website. We also captured unpublished articles that were not available on online systems.
Twenty-nine studies from Somalia and Somali immigrants (United Kingdom, United States, Italy, Libya) with a combined sample size for each type of viral hepatitis were analyzed. The overall pooled prevalence rate of hepatitis A virus was 90.2%. The overall pooled prevalence of HBV was 18.9%. The overall pooled prevalence of HCV was estimated as 4.84%. The overall pooled prevalence of hepatitis D virus was 28.99%. The overall pooled prevalence of hepatitis E virus was 46.86%.
This study demonstrates a high prevalence of all forms of viral hepatitis in Somalia and it also indicates that chronic HBV was the commonest cause of chronic liver disease.
Viral hepatitis in Somalia demonstrated a high rate in its all types of hepatitis especially hepatitis B virus and C, while hepatitis B determined the common cause of chronic liver disease in Somalia. According to this systematic review and meta-analysis, further studies are needed in order to search out data about viral hepatitis in different regions of the country, risk factors and its complications.