Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 14, 2018; 24(26): 2844-2852
Published online Jul 14, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i26.2844
Table 1 Summary of evidence for association between potential risk factors and malignant gallbladder polyps
Risk factorDirection of associationStrength of associationRelated notable findingsKey references
AgePositiveProbability of malignancy was 20.7% in those patients older than 50This systematic review studied polyps less than 10 mm only[38]
Sessile morphologyPositiveProbability of malignancy was 13.9% in sessile compared to pedunculated polypsThis systematic review studied polyps less than 10 mm only[38]
Presence of gallstonesInconclusiveAldouri et al[47] found increased risk of malignancy with gallstones (HR = 3.2, 95%CI: 1.42-7.22) but Park et al[39] found no difference (P = 0.27)There is no strong evidence to suggest there is a definite association[39,47]
Indian EthnicityPositiveHR = 12.92 (95%CI: 3.77-44.29) This shows a significant HR but the width of the CI’s are noted.This is the only study to compare risk between Indian ethnicity and Caucasian race[47]
Primary sclerosing cholangitisPositive40%-60% of polyps in patients with PSC were malignant33% of those with benign polyps had associated dysplasia[56]