Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. May 28, 2018; 24(20): 2137-2151
Published online May 28, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i20.2137
Table 1 Summary of clinical trials of immune therapies (single agent or combination with gemcitabine) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Type of immunotherapyMoleculesTrialPhasenPopulationMain results
Immune checkpoint inhibitorsPD-L1 (BMS-936559)Brahmer et al[8]I14Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
PD-L1 (atezolizumab)Herbst et al[12]I1Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
PD-1 (pembrolizumab)Patnaik et al[13]I1Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
CTLA-4 (ipilimumab)Royal et al[14]II27Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
Therapeutic vaccinesGVAXJaffee et al[118]I14Resected PDAC Adjuvant Combination with chemoradiotherapy3 patients remained disease-free for > 25 mo
Lutz et al[119]II60Resected PDAC Adjuvant Combination with chemoradiotherapyMedian disease-free survival: 17.3 mo Median overall survival: 24.8 mo
Laheru et al[120]II50Advanced PDAC Pre-treated Combination with cyclophosphamideMedian overall survival: 4.3 mo
Lutz et al[30]Pilot Randomized54Resected PDAC Neoadjuvant and adjuvant Combination with cyclophosphamideArm 1: GVAX alone Arm 2: Cyclophosphamide (intravenous) + GVAX Arm 3: Cyclophosphamide (daily oral) + GVAX Intra-tumoral tertiary lymphoid aggregates PD-1 and PDL-1 upregulation
CRS 207Le et al[121]I7Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
GVAX + CRS 207Le et al[78]II Randomized90Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedArm 1: Cyclophosphamide + GVAX + CRS-207 Arm 2: Cyclophosphamide + GVAX No objective response
Algenpantucel-LHardacre et al[122]II70Resected PDAC Adjuvant Combination with chemotherapyDisease-free survival: 62% at 1 yr Overall survival: 86% at 1 yr
Mutated KRAS peptideGjertsen et al[123]I/II5Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedNo objective response
Gjertsen et al[124]I/II48Advanced PDAC Pre-treated Resected PDAC AdjuvantNo objective response Median overall survival in resected PDAC: 25.6 mo
Abou-Alfa et al[125]I24Resected PDAC AdjuvantMedian disease-free survival: 8.6 mo Median overall survival: 20.3 mo
Telomerase peptide (GV1001)Middleton et al[126]III Randomized1062Advanced PDAC First line Combination with chemotherapyArm 1: chemotherapy alone Arm 2: sequential chemo-immunotherapy Arm 3: concurrent chemo-immunotherapy No benefit on overall survival of adding vaccination to chemotherapy
Oncolytic virusesMutated adenovirus (ONYX-15)Hecht et al[127]I/II21Advanced PDAC Pre-treated and first line Combination with chemotherapyTwo partial responses
Mulvihill et al[128]I23Advanced PDAC Pre-treated and first lineNo objective response
Anti-transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)Anti-TGFβ2 (trabedersen)Oettle et al[129]I/II37Advanced PDAC Pre-treatedOne complete response
TGFβ receptor inhibitor (galunisertib)Melisi et al[130]II Randomized156Advanced PDAC Pre-treated and first line Combination with chemotherapyArm 1: galunisertib + gemcitabine Arm 2: gemcitabine +placebo No benefit on overall survival of adding galunisertib to chemotherapy