Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 14, 2018; 24(14): 1521-1530
Published online Apr 14, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i14.1521
Table 1 Studies reporting the prevalence of people avoiding gluten-containing foods
Ref.CountryPopulationSample sizeAvoidance rate of gluten-based products
Tanpowpong et al[60], 2012New ZealandPediatric9165.2%
Rubio-Tapia et al[61], 2013United StatesPediatric77980.7%
DiGiacomo et al[62], 2013United StatesNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey77620.6%
Lis et al[63], 2014AustraliaAdults91041.2%
Golley et al[64], 2015AustraliaAdults118410.6%
Mardini et al[65], 2015United StatesPediatric147011%
Aziz et al[59], 2014United KingdomAdults10023.7%
Van Gils et al[8], 2016The NetherlandsAdults7856.2%
Carroccio et al[7], 2017ItalyAdolescents5482.9%
Table 2 Main studies exploring the effect of gluten free diet in irritable bowel syndrome
Wahnschaffe et al[67], 2001Germany102 IBS-DStool frequency/bowel movement improved in DQ2-8 positive subjects
Aziz et al[68], 2016United Kingdom40 IBS-DA 6-wk GFD reduced symptoms in 70%
Vazquez-Roque et al[69], 2013United States45 IBS-DStool frequency/bowel movement reduced in patients under GFD
Di Sabatino et al[5], 2015Italy59 IBS with self-diagnosis of NCGSA challenge with 4 g/d of gluten worsened symptoms compared to placebo
Shahbazkhani et al[70], 2015Iran72 IBSWorsening of intestinal symptoms with gluten compared to placebo
Zanwar et al[71], 2016India60 IBSA 4-wk GFD improved a visual-analogue scale of symptoms
Elli et al[72], 2016Italy140 IBS with self-diagnosis of NCGSOnly the 14% showed a response to GFD as well as challenge test
Barmeyer et al[73], 2017Germany34 IBSThe 34% showed clinical improvement to GFD and continued for one year
Table 3 Main extra-intestinal manifestations of non-celiac gluten sensitivity and associated disorders
ManifestationsExtra-intestinal manifestationsLevel of evidenceAssociated disordersLevel of evidence
General symptomsTiredness4Aphthous stomatitis4
Lack of wellbeing4
Foggy mind4
Joint or muscle pain4
Arm/leg numbness4
Neurologic manifestationsAtaxia3b
Demyelinating disease4
Psychiatric manifestationsDepression1cBipolar disorder4
Anxiety1cGluten psychosis4
Other autoimmune diseases and rheumatologic diseasesPsoriasis2b
Autoimmune thyroiditis2b
Rheumatoid arthritis4
Sjogren syndrome4
Raynaud phenomenon4
Skin diseasesDermatitis herpetiformis2b
Contact dermatitis2b
Rash and undetermined dermatitis2b
Functional disordersFibromyalgia1c
Irritable bowel syndrome1c
Nutritional imbalanceAnemia4
OtherInterstitial cystitis4
Ingrown hairs4
Rhinitis, asthma4
Postural tachycardia syndrome2b
Oligo- or polymenorrhea4