Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 28, 2016; 22(32): 7289-7300
Published online Aug 28, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i32.7289
Table 1 Common classifications of portal vein tumor thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma
GroupTypes of PVTTSurvival
Ikai et al[80]Vp0: Absent59% at 5 yr
Vp1: Distal to but not in second-order branches39.1% at 5 yr
Vp2: In second-order branches23.3% at 5 yr
Vp3: In first-order branches18.3% at 5 yr (Vp3 and Vp4)
Vp4: In the main trunk or contralateral or both
Shi et al[17]10: Microscopic
1: In segmental branches or above26.7% at 3 yr (Type 10 included)
2: In the left or right branch16.9% at 3 yr
3: In the main trunk3.7% at 3 yr
4: In the superior mesenteric vein0% at 3 yr
Xu et al[18]A: In the main trunk or both the left and right branches0% at 5 yr
B: In only the left or right branch5.2% at 5 yr
Table 2 Prospective trials on transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis
GroupNo. of patientsTreatmentsChild-Pugh ASurvival
Luo et al[81]164 (84 vs 80)TACE vs ControlNot known1-yr survival 30.9% vs 9.2%
Niu et al[82]150 (115 vs 35)TACE vs Control88 vs 21Median survival 8.67 mo vs 14 mo
Kim et al[83]110 (49 vs 61)TACE vs TACI30 vs 22Median survival 14.9 mo vs 4.4 mo
Peng et al[25]603 (402 vs 201)TACE vs Resection389 vs 197Median survival 42 mo vs 14.1 mo
Table 3 Studies on radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis
nTreatmentTotal RT dose/fractional dose (in Gy)Response rate (CR + PR, %)Median survival (mo)Toxicity grade3 (%)Ref.
453D-CRT (+TACE/PEI/RFA; 7% RT only)38-65/1.8-2.562.3 (CR 6.7)11.22Rim et al[51]
4123D-CRT + TACE21-60/2-527.9 (CR 3.6)10.610Yoon et al[44]
40IGRT + IA 5FU/IFN vs IA 5FU/IFN30-48/7-1660 (CR 5)12 (RT)15Chuma et al[52]
9.1 (non-RT)
32IA 5FU/IFN + 3D-CRT vs IA 5FU/IFN30-45/375 (CR 19)7.5 (RT)G4: 2Katamura et al[46]
7.9 (non-RT)G3: 7% (leucopenia)/6% (thrombocytopenia)/1 (anorexia)
45PV stenting + TACE + 3D-CRT vs PV stenting + TACE30-60/235.6 (CR 0)16.5 (RT)0Zhang et al[45]
4.8 (non-RT)
3263D-CRT (IMRT 14.1%)60/2-318.1 (CR 5.8)40Huang et al[53]
383D-CRT17.5-50.4/1.8-444.7 (CR 15.8)9.60Toya et al[47]
593D-CRT30-54/2-345.8 (CR 6.8)7.80Kim et al[48]
44RT + TACE36-60/245.5 (CR 34.1)80Kim et al[49]
193D-CRT (+ TACE for liver tumor)46-60/257.9 (CR 0)7G3: 5% (thrombocytopenia)/2% (leucopenia)/2 (GI ulcers)Yamada et al[54]
20RT + TACE50/250 (CR 0)5.35Ishikura et al[55]
24RT + TACE50/250 (CR 16.7)CR/PR (9.7)13%Tazawa et al[56]
NR/PD (3/8)
2813D-CRT + TACE30-54/1.8 -4.553.8 (CR 3.6)11.620%Yu et al[57]