Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 28, 2016; 22(32): 7186-7202
Published online Aug 28, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i32.7186
Table 1 Mechanisms of probiotics
Increase in barrier function
Maintenance of epithelial tight junctions integrity
Increase mucin production (Globet cells)
Increase in trefoil factors and defensins production (Paneth Cells)
Modulation of immune response
Increase secretory IgA
Production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines
Promotion tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells
Enhance of natural killer activity
Antagonism of pathogens
Direct killing of bacteria
Reduction of pathogen adherence
Inhibition of pathogenic bacteria growth by antimicrobial and antitoxin compound production (i.e., SCFA, bacteriocins and microcins)
Production of substances
Production of enzymatic activities and/or beneficial metabolites to the host
Promotion pain relief in visceral hyperalgesia
Table 2 Role of probiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases
Ref.No. (intervention/control)ProbioticControlResults
Remission induction in UC
Kato et al[68]20 (10/10)B. breve, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus + 5ASA/SASPPlaceboslight ↑
Tursi et al[69]90 (30/60)VSL#3 + balsalazideBalsalazide alone
Miele et al[70]29 (14/15)VSL#3Placebo
Sood et al[71]147 (77/70)VSL#3Placebo
Matthes et al[72]57 (46/11)E. coli Nissle 1917Placebo
Tursi et al[73]144 (71/73)VSL#3Placebo
Maintenance of remission
Kruis et al[74]103 (50/53)E. coli Nissle 19175ASASimilar efficacy
Kruis et al[75]327 (162/165)E. coli Nissle 19175ASASimilar efficacy
Zocco et al[76]187 (127/60)Lactobacillus GG5ASASimilar efficacy (LGG more effective than 5ASA alone in prolonging relapse free time)
Lactobacillus GG + 5ASA
Miele et al[70]29 (14/15)VSL#3Placebo
Wildt et al[77]32 (20/12)L. acidophilus La5, B. animalis subs P. lactis BB-12PlaceboSimilar effect
Maintenance of remission in Pouchitis
Gionchetti et al[78]40 (crossover)VSL#3Placebo
Gionchetti et al[79]40 (20/20)VSL#3Placebo
Mimura et al[80]36 (20/16)VSL#3Placebo
Maintenance of remission in CD
Prantera et al[81]45 (23/22)Lactobacillus GGPlaceboSimilar effect
Bousvaros et al[82]75 (39/36)Lactobacillus GGplaceboSimilar effect
Raju et al[83]90 (43/47)L. johnsoniiplaceboSimilar effect
Van Gossum et al[84]70 (34/36)L. johnsoniiplaceboSimilar effect
Induction of remission in CD
Steed et al[85]24 (13/11)B. longum, Synergy 1 + conventional therapyPlacebo + conventional therapySimilar effect
Table 3 Role of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome
Ref.Diagnostic criteriaNo. participantProbioticTime (wk)Results (vs placebo)
O’Sullivan et al[147]Rome25Lactobacillus GG20No difference
Nobaek et al[148]Rome60L. plantarum4↓ pain and flatulence
Kim et al[149]Rome II25VSL#38↓ bloating
O’Mahony et al[150]Rome II80L. salivarius UCC4331, B. infantis 356248↓ symptoms and pro-inflammatory cytokines (only for B. infantis)
Kajarder et al[151]Rome/Rome II103Mixture of L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus LC705, B. breve Bb99, P. freudenreichii24↓ symptoms
Kim et al[152]Rome II48VSL#38↓ flatulence
Niv et al[153]Rome II54L. reuteri ATCC5573024No difference
Whorwell et al[154]Rome II362B. infantis 356244↓ symptoms (only at dose of 1 × 108 CFU)
Guyonnet et al[155]Rome II (C-IBS)274B. animalis DN1730104↑ QoL and bloating score
Kajander et al[156]Rome II86L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii sp P. Shermanii JS, B. animalis sp P. lactis Bb-1220↓ bloating and abdominal pain
Zeng et al[157]Rome II (D-IBS)29S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, B. longum4↓intestinal permeability and symptoms
Drouault-Holowazcz et al[158]Rome II100B. longum LA101, L. acidophilus LA102, Lactocuccus lactis LA103, S. thermophilus LA1044↑ QoL
↓ flatulence, pain and bloating
Sinn et al[159]Roma III40L. acidophilus SDC 2012, 20134↓ symptoms
Simrén et al[160]Rome II74L. paracasei F19, L. acidophilus La5, B. lactis Bb-128No difference
Søndergaard et al[161]Rome II52L. paracasei F19, L. acidophilus La5, B. lactis Bb-128No difference
Guglielmetti et al[162]Rome III122B. bifidum MIMBb754↓ symptoms ↑ QoL
Ducrotté et al[163]Rome III (D-IBS)214L. plantarum 299v4↓ pain and bloating
Kruis et al[164]Rome II (D-IBS)120E. coli Nissle 191712No difference
Ki Cha et al[165]Roma III (D-IBS)50L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, B. breve, B. lactis, B. longum, S.thermophilus8↑ QoL
Dapoigny et al[166]Rome III50L. caseirhamnosus4↓ symptoms
Roberts et al[167]Rome III179B. lactis CNCMI-249412No difference
Shavatehi et al[168]Rome II160Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium strains and Streptococcus thermophiles2No difference
Yoon et al[169]Rome III80L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, B. breve, B. actis, B. longum, S.thermophilus4↓ symptoms
Pineton de Chambrun et al[170]Rome III179S. cerevisiae8↓ pain and discomfort