Observational Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 7, 2016; 22(13): 3652-3662
Published online Apr 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i13.3652
Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the enrolled patients
Eligibility criteriaExclusion criteria
Histopathology confirmedMRI examination contraindication
Non-invasive diagnosis criteria [(EASL) 2012]1Significant renal insufficiency
Cirrhotic patients
Hypervascular in the arterial phase
Washout in the portal venous or delayed phase
Non-antineoplaston therapySevere motion artifacts on MRI images
The largest diameter of lesion ≥ 2 cmHepatic vein/portal cancer embolus
Age of patients ≥ 18 yrInferior vena cava embolus
Inability of informed written consent
Table 2 Summary of parameter terms used in the dual-input extended Tofts model and 2-compartment exchange model
Ctiss(t)Concentration of tracer in the tissuemmol/L
CA(t)Concentration of tracer in whole blood in a major feeding arterymmol/L
Cv(t)Concentration of tracer in the portal veinmmol/L
FaArterial fraction of the tissue perfusion%
HLVHematocrit in major (large) vesselsnone
HPIHepatic perfusion indexnone
FpFlow rate of the blood plasma through the intravascular plasma spacemL/mL per minute
vpRatio of blood plasma volume to tissue volume%
veRatio of EES volume to tissue volume%
kepEfflux rate constantmin-1
KtransTransfer constantmin-1
PSEndothelial permeability surface area productmL/mL per minute
Convolution operatorNone
Table 3 Patients’ demographic characteristics, tumor volume, and tumor stage
Age (yr)GenderDiagnosis criteriaSize (cm³)Stage (BCLC)1
64.857 ± 10.384Female 5Confirmed by histology 8409.588A2 (2)
Male 23Diagnosed by EASL 20A3 (3)
A4 (1)
B (11)
C (11)
Table 4 Comparison of tumor dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging pharmacokinetic parameters from 28 scanned patients using two models [Median (IQR)]
ktrans (min-1)PS (mL/mLmin-1)Fp (mL/mLmin-1)kep (min-1)vevpHPI
Dual-Input Extended Tofts model0.29 ± 0.38--1.35 ± 1.420.51 ± 1.160.12 ± 0.210.66 ± 0.24
Dual-Input Exchange model-0.19 ± 0.361.07 ± 1.730.95 ± 1.601.22 ± 1.190.14 ± 0.170.63 ± 0.29
Z/t valueNANANA-0.638-2.869-0.5680.4991
P valueNANANA0.5240.0040.5690.6221