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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 21, 2015; 21(43): 12283-12295
Published online Nov 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i43.12283
Table 1 Cytokines related to 17 secreting helper T development and plasticity in human
IL-1βAccelerate IL-17A secretion from IL-17 secreting Innate[69]
Lymphoid cells and Th17
IL-6Induce autocrine IL-21 and generation of Th17[20]
IL-10Suppress IL-17A and Th17 generation[62]
IL-12Induce IFN-γ secretion from Th17 cells (Th1/Th17 plasticity)[20]
IL-21Potentiates pathogenic effects of Th17 cells in the gut[64,65]
IL-22Attenuate the development of intestinal pathology via Stat3-mediated effects on epithelial cells[66,67]
IL-23Induce IL-22 and IL-17A secretions and maintain Th17 expansion[68]
TGF-β1Initiate generation of Treg and Th17 populations dependent on the concentration[63]
Table 2 Transcription factors related to 17 secreting helper T development and plasticity
Transcription factorEffectRef.
Fosl2A key determinant of cellular plasticity[30]
IRF4Th17 differentiation via RORγt dependent and independent pathways[115]
Augmented in patients with IBD and correlated with enhanced production of IL-17 and IL-22 mRNA[70]
BATFRequired for differentiation of Th17 via induction of RORγt, and bound to IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22 promoters[116]
BATF+ RORc- Th17 cells are found in gut tissues from UC but not CD patients.[73]
HIF-1A key transregulator of Th17 polarization and suppressor of Foxp3 in Treg[33,81]
Reciprocal regulation between HIF-1 and miR210[81]
Jmjd3H3K27 demethylase, important for Th1/Th17 plasticity[101]
RORc (human)Essential for Th17 differentiation induced by TGF-β1 and IL-6 or IL-21[35]
RORγt (mouse)
IKZF3 (Aiolos)Promotes Th17 differentiation via silencing of the IL-2 locus[74]
Aiolos+ iTreg respond to IL-1β and downregulate their suppressor functions[75]
Table 3 MicroRNAs influencing 17 secreting helper T development and plasticity
miR10TGF-βBcl-6Limit Th17, convert Th cells into Treg[78,83]
miR17-92 clusterCreb1, TGF-βRII, KZF4 (miR17), PTEN (miR19)Accumulation of antigen-specific iTreg development, IL-10 production, and possibly Treg cell migration[78,83]
miR29NOD2IL-12p40, IL-23p19Inhibit IL-23R signalling[80]
miR126PIK3R2Treg-mediated Immunosuppression[83]
miR132/212 clusterTCDD, FICZBcl-6Enhance Th17 development via AhR pathway[82,83]
miR146aTLR2-5STAT1Block Th1 development[78,79]
miR155TLR2-4, TLR9SOCS1Unleash STAT1, 4, and 5 signals, and promote Th1, Th2, and Treg[78,79]
miR210HIF-1 (counter regulator)Control Foxp3 expression[81,83]
miR301PIAS3Unleash STAT3 signal, and generate Th17[78]
miR326EST-1Critical for Th17 development[78]