Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 14, 2015; 21(42): 12101-12113
Published online Nov 14, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i42.12101
Table 1 Reported prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 3
Country, RegionViremic populationGenotype 3 prevalenceRef.
India6026 (3157-7174)54.4%[8]
8666 (5150-15449)64.0%[14]
Malaysia237 (47-1216)58.6%[8]
Pakistan7039 (1728-10524)79.0%[8]
Thailand925 (633-1259)44.2%[8]
Thailand, North23%/16% (3a/3b)[17]
Thailand, South38%/14% (3a/3b)[17]
Europe, Western
Denmark21 (14-21)43.0%[8]
Finland22 (16-27)46.0%[8,14]
Norway29 (25-37)28.1%[8]
22 (18-28)50.0%[14]
United Kingdom210 (125-428)43.8%[8]
Middle East
Turkey434 (274-959)4.9%[8]
Turkey, province of Kahramanmaras46.0%[16]
Australia234 (169-260)36.8%[8]
New Zealand50 (27-72)35.0%[8,14]
Table 2 Factors associated with poor response to pegylated interferon α/RVB in hepatitis C virus GT-3- infected patients
FactorsStudy designNumber of patientsCharacteristicsRef.Comments
Viral factors
High baseline viral load (> 8 × 105 UI/mL)Prospective426 (all GT-3)223 patients with viral load > 8 × 105 UI/mL[56]Combined with non-RVR
High baseline viral load (> 6 × 105 UI/mL)Retrospective107 (all GT-3)45 non-SVR/62 SVR[71]Combined with advanced fibrosis
High baseline quasi- species complexity and diversityRetrospective10 (all GT-3)[58]
Mutations in NS5AProspective49 (all GT-3)25 non-SVR/24 SVR[62]Significant mutations at positions 2309 (Ala to Ser) and 2326 (Gly to Ala)
Host factors
Fibrosis/CirrhosisProspective91 (all GT-3)17 cirrhotic/74 non-cirrhotic[63]Also associated with increased risk of post-treatment relapse
Retrospective604 (all GT-3)145 cirrhotic/459 non-cirrhotic[64]Response not affected by ethnicity
Retrospective180108 GT-3/72 GT-2[66]Lack of SVR associated with fibrosis and GT-3
Retrospective107 (all GT-3)45 non-SVR/62 SVR[71]Combined with high baseline viral load
SteatosisProspective224182 GT-3/42 GT-2[69]Lower SVR in GT-3
Retrospective932505 GT-3/427 GT-2[70]Associated with higher relapse rates in GT-3 patients who had RVR
EthnicityRetrospective10366 Caucasians/38 Asians[74]Poor response could reflect more advanced liver disease at baseline in Asian patients
Retrospective604 (all GT-3)305 non-Asians/299 South Asians[64]No correlation between ethnicity and treatment relapse
IFNL3 gene polymorphismsRetrospective107 (all GT-3)45 non-SVR/62 SVR[71]No correlation between IFNL3 polymorphisms and SVR
Prospective293 HCV RNA- positive65.87% GT-3/32.08% GT-1[78]CC and TT alleles strongly associated with SVR in GT-3 patients
Intrahepatic ISG15 expression/IFNL4 gene polymorphismsRetrospective9236 GT-3/56 GT-1[79]In GT-3, low ISG15 expression and good-responder IFNL4 genotype associated with high SVR rates
Table 3 Overview of direct-acting antiviral-containing treatments for hepatitis C virus genotype-3-infected patients
Drug combinationRecommendations1DurationRef.
IFN-containing treatment
PEG-IFN/RBV and SOFFor treatment-experienced patients, with or without cirrhosis12 wk[97]
PEG-IFN/RBV and DCVNot yet recommended12 or 16 wk[98]
IFN-free treatment
SOF and RBVSuboptimal in treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients24 wk[99,100]
SOF and DCVFor patients without cirrhosis12 wk[101]
SOF/DCV and RBVFor treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis24 wk[102]
SOF/ledipasvir (single-tablet regimen)Not yet recommended12 wk[104]
Promising therapeutic option
GS-5816/SOF ± RBVUnder evaluation12 wk[107,108]