Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 14, 2015; 21(42): 12101-12113
Published online Nov 14, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i42.12101
Hepatitis C virus infection: Are there still specific problems with genotype 3?
Claire Gondeau, Georges Philippe Pageaux, Dominique Larrey
Claire Gondeau, Georges Philippe Pageaux, Dominique Larrey, Department of Hepato-gastroenterology A, Hospital Saint Eloi, CHRU, 34295 Montpellier, France
Claire Gondeau, Dominique Larrey, INSERM U1183, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biotherapy, University of Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier, France
Author contributions: Gondeau C conducted the review of existing research and drafted the manuscript; Pageaux GP and Larrey D edited the final version.
Supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Gondeau C declare no conflict of interest; Pageaux GP and Larrey D have received fees for serving as speakers and advisory board members for BMS, Gilead, Merck, Janssen. Larrey D has received fees for serving as a speaker and advisory board member for Abbvie.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Claire Gondeau, PhD, INSERM U1183, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biotherapy, University of Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier, France.
Telephone: +33-4-67330493 Fax: +33-4-67330459
Received: June 29, 2015
Peer-review started: July 3, 2015
First decision: July 20, 2015
Revised: August 7, 2015
Accepted: September 30, 2015
Article in press: September 30, 2015
Published online: November 14, 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the main indication for liver transplantation worldwide. As promising specific treatments have been introduced for genotype 1, clinicians and researchers are now focusing on patients infected by non-genotype 1 HCV, particularly genotype 3. Indeed, in the golden era of direct-acting antiviral drugs, genotype 3 infections are no longer considered as easy to treat and are associated with higher risk of developing severe liver injuries, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, HCV genotype 3 accounts for 40% of all HCV infections in Asia and is the most frequent genotype among HCV-positive injecting drug users in several countries. Here, we review recent data on HCV genotype 3 infection/treatment, including clinical aspects and the underlying genotype-specific molecular mechanisms.

Keywords: Hepatitis C, Genotype 3, Direct-acting antivirals, Interferon, Hepatocellular carcinoma

Core tip: This article reviews the complex relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and the possible complications in chronically infected patients. We discuss recent updates on the epidemiology and clinical aspects of HCV genotype 3 infection, including the currently available therapies. We also describe model systems to study the HCV genotype-specific molecular mechanisms.