Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7, 2015; 21(41): 11877-11886
Published online Nov 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i41.11877
Table 1 Nomograms predicting stage I-III colorectal cancer oncological prognosis
Ref.YearCancer locationTargeted patientsPredicted outcomeNumber of patientsC-indexValidationCalibrationVariablesComments
Weiser et al[8]2008ColonStage I-IIIRFS13200.77AbsentPresentAge, CEA, No. of positive and negative nodes, pT, adjuvant chemotherapy, cancer location, differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion
Segelman et al[9]2014ColorectalStage I-IIIPeritoneal carcinomatosis80440.78-0.80AbsentPresentAge, cancer location, pT, pN, radicality, type of surgery, preoperative radiotherapy, nodes examined, adjuvant chemotherapyOnly web-calculator was available
Ying et al[10]2014ColorectalStage I-IIIRFS, OS, CSS2050.80-0.81AbsentAbsentChemotherapy, tumor size, cell differentiation, TNM stage, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio
Zhang et al[11]2013ColonStage IIRFS7350.65-0.82PresentPresentExpression of microRNA, pT, internal obstruction or perforation, nodes examined, tumor grade
Goossens-Beumer et al[12]2015ColorectalStage II/IIIRFS930.80PresentPresentExpression of microRNA, TNM stage, age, gender
Peng et al[13]2014RectalStage II/IIIOS, distant metastasis8830.68-0.76PresentAbsentGender, age, CEA, cancer location, pT, pN, ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy
Valentini et al[14]2011RectalClinical stage II/III patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoraOS, local recurrence, distant metastasis27950.68-0.73PresentPresentpT, cT, pN, age, concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy, surgical procedure, gender, dose of radiotherapy
van Gijn et al[15]2015RectalStage I-IIIOS, local recurrence, distant metastasis28810.75-0.79AbsentAbsentAge, pT, pN, PA-stage, distance, residual cancer, surgical type, gender, radiotherapy, complications
Table 2 Nomograms predicting stage IV colorectal cancer oncological prognosis
Ref.YearTargeted cancerTreatmentPredicted outcomeNumber of patientsC-indexValidationCalibrationVariables
Beppu et al[18]2012Liver metastasisHepatic resectionDFS727Not assessedValidated by Okuno et al[26]AbsentMetachronous or synchronous, pN, No. of tumors, largest tumor diameter, extrahepatic metastasis, CA19-9
Kanemitsu et al[19]2008Liver metastasisHepatic resectionOS, CSS5780.66-0.68Validated by Takakura et al[27]PresentHistology, No. of lymph node metastases, No. of tumors, extrahepatic metastasis, metastasis of hilar lymph nodes, surgical margin, CEA
Kattan et al[20]2008Liver metastasisHepatic resectionCSS14770.61Validated by Takakura et al[27], Reddy et al[28], and Nathan et al[29]PresentGender, age, primary site, disease-free interval, CEA, No. of tumors, largest tumor diameter, bilateral resection, > 1 lobe, pN
Kanemitsu et al[21]2004Lung metastasisThoracotomyOS3130.66-0.72Validated by Kanemitsu et al[30]PresentHistology, No. of tumors, hilar/mediastinal lymph nodes, extrathoracic metastasis, CEA
Elias et al[22]2014Liver and/or Peritoneal metastasisOptimal surgery plus chemotherapyOS2870.61AbsentPresentNo. of lymph node metastases, peritoneal carcinomatosis index, planified procedure
Kawai et al[23]2015Metastatic CRCCurative resectionDFS, OS11330.60-0.64PresentPresentPostoperative CEA, pT, pN, No. of metastatic organs, peritoneal dissemination
Manceau et al[24]2014Metastatic CRC, KRAS-wild-type, refractory to chemotherapyAnti-EGFR antibodiesRisk of progression132> 0.7PresentAbsentMicroRNA expression and BRAF mutations
Massacesi et al[25]2000Locally advanced or metastatic CRCChemotherapyOS1057Not assessedAbsentAbsentResponse to chemotherapy, No. of metastatic sites, CEA, performance status
Table 3 Nomograms predicting short-term outcomes of surgery for colorectal cancer
Ref.YearCancer locationTargeted patientsPredicted outcomeNumber of patientsC-indexValidationCalibrationVariablesComments
Kiran et al[31]2013ColorectalAll colorectal surgeries30-d mortality309000.89PresentPresentAge, ASA, albumin, functional dependency, renal failure, emergency surgery, disseminated cancer
Hedrick et al[32]2013ColorectalAll colorectal surgeriesSuperficial SSI, deep incisional SSI, and combination thereof184030.64-0.65AbsentPresentDiabetes, smoking, disseminated cancer, BMI, open or laparoscopic surgery
de Campos-Lobato et al[33]2009Small bowel/colorectalAll colorectal surgeriesOrgan space SSI123730.65PresentPresentSurgical site, smoking, ASA, wound class, diabetes, steroid use, prior surgery, radiotherapy, open or laparoscopic surgery, age, BMI, creatinine, albumin, gender, transfusion, operative time
Frasson et al[34]2014ColonAll colorectal surgeriesAnastomotic leakage31930.62-0.63AbsentAbsentOral anticoagulants, intraoperative complications, BMI, total protein, gender, No. of bedsDecision-tree diagram was also presented
Yao et al[35]2014RectalLaparoscopic anterior resection with intracorporeal rectal transection and double-stapling technique anastomosisAnastomotic leakage4760.84Internal validationAbsentCancer location, operative time, preservation of the left colic artery
Russell et al[36]2013Rectal/rectosigmoidStage I-IIIRate of margin positivity851900.75AbsentPresentAge, gender, ethnicity, cancer location, TNM stage, tumor size, tumor grade, insurance status, histology
Table 4 Other nomograms relevant to colorectal cancer
Ref.YearTargeted patientsTreatmentPredicted outcomeNumber of patientsC-indexValidationCalibrationVariablesComments
Jwa et al[37]2014Non-metastatic rectal cancerCRT + surgeryypN status8910.77-0.81PresentPresentypT, cN, histology, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, age
van Stiphout et al[38]2011Rectal cancerCRT + surgeryPathologic complete response953Not assessedPresentPresenttumor length, RI, SUVPre- and post-CRT PET-CTs were used to predict response
van Stiphout et al[39]2014Rectal cancerCRT + surgeryPathologic complete response1900.70-0.78PresentAbsentMaximal diameter at day 15, RI, cNPre- and intra-CRT PET-CTs were used to predict response
Omata et al[40]2011Asymptomatic individualsColorectal neoplasms1085Not assessedAbsentAbsentQuantitative fecal immunochemical test, gender, age, BMI
Kawai et al[41]2014Colorectal cancerSurgeryPostoperative development of metachronous colorectal neoplasms3090.71PresentPresentGender, age, No. of synchronous adenomas and colorectal cancers
Wells et al[42]2014Age > 45Colorectal cancer development1806300.68AbsentPresentAge, ethnicity, smoking, alcoholic drinks, BMI, education, aspirin, estrogen, family history of CRC, NSAIDs, multivitamins, red meat intake, diabetes, physical activity