Topic Highlight
Copyright ©2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 21, 2013; 19(47): 8808-8821
Published online Dec 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.8808
Table 1 Suggested thresholds of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence for the implementation of surveillance[15]
Group of patientsThreshold incidence to implement surveillance (% per year)Incidence of HCC
Surveillance recommended
Asian male hepatitis B carriers over age 400.20.4%-0.6%/yr
Asian female hepatitis B carriers over age 500.20.3%-0.6%/yr
Hepatitis B carriers with family history of hepatocellular carcinoma0.2Incidence higher than without family history
African/North American Blacks with hepatitis B0.2Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs at a younger age
Hepatitis B virus carriers, cirrhosis0.2-1.53%-8%/yr
Hepatitis C virus infection, cirrhosis1.53%-5%/yr
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, stage 41.53%-5%/yr
Genetic hemochromatosis, cirrhosis1.5Unknown, but probably > 1.5%/yr
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, cirrhosis1.5Unknown, but probably > 1.5%/yr
Other cirrhosis1.5Unknown
Surveillance benefit uncertain
Hepatitis B carriers younger than 40 (males) or 50 (females)0.2< 0.2%/yr
Hepatitis C virus infection, stage 3 fibrosis1.5< 1.5%/yr
Non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease1.5< 1.5%/yr