Published online Feb 21, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i7.763
Peer-review started: July 27, 2021
First decision: October 3, 2021
Revised: November 5, 2021
Accepted: January 19, 2022
Article in press: January 19, 2022
Published online: February 21, 2022
Pure endoscopic treatment of combined cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis is possible due to the chance to use together both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) approaches. This endotherapy permits to treat biliary stones in the main bile duct by standard ERCP and gallbladder stones by EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy eventually associated to intracorporeal lithotripsy to achieve optimal results.
Core Tip: Combining endoscopic approaches of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) let to treat simultaneously biliary stones both in the gallbladder and in the main bile ducts. ERCP standard approach can be associated to EUS-guided gallbladder drainage to avoid recurrences in patients unfit for surgery. To optimize this treatment, gallbladder stones can be fragmented by intracorporeal lithotripsy so their fragments can easily pass through the stent in place for cholecystoduodenostomy. This mininvasive approach seems promising on the base of available literature.
- Citation: Dioscoridi L, Mutignani M. Gallbladder biliary lithotripsy: A new rationale applied to old treatment. World J Gastroenterol 2022; 28(7): 763-765
- URL: https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v28/i7/763.htm
- DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v28.i7.763
We read with interest the paper by Cianci and Restini.
The authors interestingly discussed on indications, advantages and disadvantages of laparo-endoscopic rendez-vous, pure laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and sequential laparoscopic-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) approach in combined cholethiasis and choledocholithiasis.
We would like to focus on a totally endoscopic approach to this pathology.
We totally agree with Cianci and Restini that ERCP cannot be considered definitive in the treatment of cholecysto-choledocholithiasis, even if associated with lithotripsy, since the genesis of the stones is secondary to the lithogenic bile in the gallbladder. Thus, can we act endoscopically also on gallbladder stones?
Recently, EUS-guided cholecystoduodenostomy was found comparable to laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of clinical outcomes. Recurrent biliary events after EUS-guided gallbladder drainage can be even lowered by associated lithotripsy.
Historically, many studies demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the gallstone lithotripsy alone with high recurrence rate associated to high rate of adverse events, especially in case of multiple and large stones[3,4].
In the recent years, the role of this treatment was re-established because of the new endoscopic approaches described for acute cholecystitis; particularly, the increasing role of EUS-guided cholecysto-duodenostomy[5,6] has two main interesting implications in this perspective.
Firstly, EUS-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered as definitive therapy especially in elderly patients unfit for surgery, differently from percutaneous cholecystostomy. After endoscopic stable gallbladder drainage in the duodenum, the gallbladder loses its property to concentrate the bile and, so on, to form new gallstones.
In this setting, the opportunity to destroy the gallstones is interesting, on one hand, to avoid eventually obstruction of the biliary edge of the stent (and subsequent relapses of symptoms) or, on the other hand, further migration of biliary gallstones into the infundibulum or into the biliary tree (and subsequent obstruction of the main bile duct), especially in case of hard and large stones.
Intracholecystic lithotripsy can be theoretically performed as biliary standard lithotripsy because effectiveness and adverse events should not be different, as described in few first experiences[6-8]. On the other side, standard endoscopic treatment for lithiasis of the common bile duct can be provided in the same combined session.
The main limitations of EUS-guided gallbladder drainage are still the need of a sufficient loosening of the gallbladder (evaluated at the preliminary EUS) to guarantee a safe puncture and the absence of extraluminal pericholecystic fluid collection.
We encourage further studies on this focus to verify these first results and to improve the outcomes and indications of endoscopic treatments in this field, especially for patients unfit for surgery.
Provenance and peer review: Invited article; Externally peer reviewed.
Peer-review model: Single blind
Specialty type: Gastroenterology and hepatology
Country/Territory of origin: Italy
Peer-review report’s scientific quality classification
Grade A (Excellent): 0
Grade B (Very good): B, B, B
Grade C (Good): C, C, C
Grade D (Fair): 0
Grade E (Poor): E
P-Reviewer: Kim BS, Kitamura K, Matsubara S, Yasukawa K, Zhang L S-Editor: Fan JR L-Editor: A P-Editor: Fan JR
|1.||Cianci P, Restini E. Management of cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis: Endoscopic and surgical approaches. World J Gastroenterol. 2021;27:4536-4554. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in CrossRef: 33] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 24] [Article Influence: 12.0] [Reference Citation Analysis (7)]|
|2.||Teoh AYB, Leung CH, Tam PTH, Au Yeung KKY, Mok RCY, Chan DL, Chan SM, Yip HC, Chiu PWY, Ng EKW. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage vs laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a propensity score analysis with 1-year follow-up data. Gastrointest Endosc. 2021;93:577-583. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 33] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 32] [Article Influence: 16.0] [Reference Citation Analysis (1)]|
|3.||Plaisier PW, van der Hul RL, den Toom R, Nijs HG, Terpstra OT, Bruining HA. Gallstone lithotripsy: the Rotterdam experience. Hepatogastroenterology. 1994;41:260-262. [PubMed] [Cited in This Article: ]|
|4.||Sackmann M. Gallbladder stones: shockwave therapy. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1992;6:697-714. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 6] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 7] [Article Influence: 0.2] [Reference Citation Analysis (0)]|
|5.||Teoh AYB, Kitano M, Itoi T, Pérez-Miranda M, Ogura T, Chan SM, Serna-Higuera C, Omoto S, Torres-Yuste R, Tsuichiya T, Wong KT, Leung CH, Chiu PWY, Ng EKW, Lau JYW. Endosonography-guided gallbladder drainage vs percutaneous cholecystostomy in very high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis: an international randomised multicentre controlled superiority trial (DRAC 1). Gut. 2020;69:1085-1091. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 104] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 104] [Article Influence: 34.7] [Reference Citation Analysis (2)]|
|6.||James TW, Baron TH. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage: A review of current practices and procedures. Endosc Ultrasound. 2019;8:S28-S34. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 10] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 15] [Article Influence: 3.8] [Reference Citation Analysis (0)]|
|7.||Wang W, Liu B, Qi K, Shi X, Jin Z, Li Z. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic laser lithotripsy and lithotomy through the lumen-apposing metal stent for giant gallbladder stones. VideoGIE. 2020;5:318-323. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 8] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 5] [Article Influence: 1.7] [Reference Citation Analysis (0)]|
|8.||Higa JT, Irani SS. When cholecystostomy tube and transpapillary stents for recurrent cholecystitis fail due to large gallstones: rescue with laser lithotripsy via cholecystoduodenal fistula. VideoGIE. 2020;5:660-663. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 1] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 1] [Article Influence: 0.3] [Reference Citation Analysis (0)]|
|9.||Baca-Arzaga AA, Navarro-Chávez A, Galindo-Jiménez A, Garza-Vega J, Flores-Villalba E. Gallstone lithotripsy with SpyGlass™ system through a cholecystoduodenal fistula in a patient with type IIIa Mirizzi syndrome. Rev Gastroenterol Mex (Engl Ed). 2021;86:99-101. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] [Cited by in Crossref: 1] [Cited by in F6Publishing: 1] [Article Influence: 0.3] [Reference Citation Analysis (0)]|