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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 14, 2018; 24(14): 1521-1530
Published online Apr 14, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i14.1521
Table 3 Main extra-intestinal manifestations of non-celiac gluten sensitivity and associated disorders
ManifestationsExtra-intestinal manifestationsLevel of evidenceAssociated disordersLevel of evidence
General symptomsTiredness4Aphthous stomatitis4
Lack of wellbeing4
Foggy mind4
Joint or muscle pain4
Arm/leg numbness4
Neurologic manifestationsAtaxia3b
Neuropathy3b
Encephalopathy3b
Epilepsy4
Miopathy4
Myelopathy4
Demyelinating disease4
Psychiatric manifestationsDepression1cBipolar disorder4
Anxiety1cGluten psychosis4
Autism2b
Schizophrenia4
Other autoimmune diseases and rheumatologic diseasesPsoriasis2b
Autoimmune thyroiditis2b
Rheumatoid arthritis4
Scleroderma4
Sjogren syndrome4
Raynaud phenomenon4
Skin diseasesDermatitis herpetiformis2b
Contact dermatitis2b
Rash and undetermined dermatitis2b
Functional disordersFibromyalgia1c
Irritable bowel syndrome1c
Nutritional imbalanceAnemia4
Osteoporosis2b
OtherInterstitial cystitis4
Ingrown hairs4
Rhinitis, asthma4
Postural tachycardia syndrome2b
Oligo- or polymenorrhea4

Citation: Losurdo G, Principi M, Iannone A, Amoruso A, Ierardi E, Di Leo A, Barone M. Extra-intestinal manifestations of non-celiac gluten sensitivity: An expanding paradigm. World J Gastroenterol 2018; 24(14): 1521-1530