Copyright ©2008 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. May 14, 2008; 14(18): 2789-2793
Published online May 14, 2008. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.2789
Occult persistence and lymphotropism of hepatitis C virus infection
Tram NQ Pham, Tomasz I Michalak
Tram NQ Pham, Tomasz I Michalak, Molecular Virology and Hepatology Research Group, Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Memorial University, St. John’s NL A1B 3V6, Canada
Author contributions: Pham TNQ and Michalak TI contributed equally to this paper.
Correspondence to: Tomasz I Michalak, MD, PhD, Molecular Virology and Hepatology Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Memorial University, 300 Prince Philip Drive, St. John’s NL A1B 3V6, Canada. timich@mun.ca
Telephone: +1-709-7777301
Fax: +1-709-7778279
Received: December 3, 2007
Revised: April 5, 2008
Published online: May 14, 2008


Recent discovery of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection persisting after spontaneous or antiviral therapy-induced resolution of hepatitis C was made possible by the introduction of nucleic acid amplification assays capable of detecting HCV RNA at sensitivities superseding those offered by clinical tests. Although individuals with this seemingly silent HCV infection are usually anti-HCV antibody reactive and have normal liver function tests, occult HCV infection has also been reported in anti-HCV-negative individuals with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology. Studies have shown that HCV RNA can persist for years in serum, lymphomononuclear cells and liver in the absence of clinical symptoms, although histological evidence of a mild inflammatory liver injury can be occasionally encountered. Furthermore, while HCV RNA can be detected in circulating lymphoid cells in approximately 30% of cases, a short-term culture under stimulatory conditions augments HCV replication in these cells allowing detection of virus in otherwise HCV-negative cases. HCV infects different immune cell subsets, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells and monocytes. Studies employing clonal sequencing and single-stranded conformational polymorphism analyses have revealed unique HCV variants residing in immune cells, further strengthening the notion of HCV lymphotropism. Overall, the data accumulated suggest that occult HCV infection is a common consequence of resolution of symptomatic hepatitis C and that examination of the cells of the immune system is an effective approach to diagnosis of HCV infection and its long-term persistence. Further work is required to fully realize pathogenic and epidemiological consequences of occult HCV persistence.

Key Words: Hepatitis C virus, Chronic hepatitis C, Occult viral persistence, HCV lymphotropism, Consequences of occult HCV persistence

Citation: Pham TN, Michalak TI. Occult persistence and lymphotropism of hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(18): 2789-2793

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen which infects over 170 million people world-wide and causes symptomatic chronic hepatitis in up to 85% of those inflicted. In a significant number of patients, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) eventually progresses to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In fact, it is estimated that cirrhosis can manifest in up to 35% of patients with CHC, of whom approximately 3% would develop HCC[12]. End-stage liver disease due to CHC is currently the number one reason for liver transplantation in many parts of the world. The global socioeconomic burden of HCV infection is further magnified by hundreds of thousands of infections identified each year.

HCV is a positive single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the Flaviviridae family and replicates by making the so-called negative strand, which is also referred to as the anti-genomic strand. The virus genome of approximately 9600 base pairs in length contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located at the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR), which drives the translation of the viral RNA transcript. Subsequent processing of the polyprotein precursor gives rise to over ten proteins, including structural proteins which form the viral nucleocapsid and envelope, as well as several non-structural proteins which are essential to replication[3].

The current standard treatment for CHC is a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and Ribavirin (P-IFNα/RBV), which is administered for 24 wk to patients infected with HCV genotype 2 or 3 and for 48 wk to those with genotype 1 or 4[45]. At present, patients who are serum HCV RNA non-reactive for at least 6 mo after completion of treatment, as determined by clinical laboratory assays, of which the sensitivities range between 9.6 and 615 IU or 30 and 1000 virus genome copies (also referred to as virus genome equivalents, vge) per mL, are considered to have achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) and would clinically be deemed “cured” of HCV. Thus, by this definition, SVR is attainable in approximately 40%-45% of patients infected with genotype 1[67] and in up to 69% of those carrying genotype 4[5]. HCV genotypes 2 and 3 are generally easiest to treat with up to 80% of patients afflicted with these strains achieving a SVR, as defined above[67].


In the past four years, the identification of a new entity of HCV infection termed as occult HCV infection was made possible by the introduction of research assays which are capable of detecting HCV RNA at lower quantities (≤ 2 IU or ≤ 10 virus genome copies per mL) than those used in clinical laboratories. One such research assay sequentially involves: (1) a reverse transcription (RT) of high quality intact total RNA extracted from serum or plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or, when feasible, hepatic tissues; (2) a two-round (i.e., direct and nested) amplification of the resulting cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers spanning different regions of the HCV genome; and (3) validation of the amplified products by nucleic acid hybridization (NAH) to recombinant HCV DNA probe[8]. By employing this assay or those with comparable sensitivities, low levels of HCV RNA can be detected in individuals for many years after clinical and biochemical recovery from hepatitis C[912]. In our studies, HCV RNA loads, as determined by the aformentioned method, in individuals who were followed for up to 7 years after SVR, were usually below 100 virus copies per mL of plasma or serum and, in most cases, ranged 100-1000 virus copies per 107 circulating lymphoid cells[913]. Comparable levels of HCV genomes were also observed by others[10]. Furthermore, longitudinal analyses of serum or plasma and PBMC samples obtained from the same patients at different time points of SVR duration or after spontaneous recovery from hepatitis C revealed that HCV RNA typically would not fluctuate by more than ten-fold between collections and that screening sequential samples enhanced identification of occult HCV persistence[81314]. In this regard, when serum samples collected 12 mo after the first one were analyzed, the overall HCV RNA positivity was increased by as much as 15% of the cases examined[13].

The discovery of occult HCV infection has, in essence, directly challenged the accepted paradigm that apparent complete resolution of hepatitis C, either spontaneously or therapeutically-induced, would be indicative of eradication of HCV[8]. It should be pointed out that although HCV persistence after resolution of CHC was first made evident from studies using the RT-PCR/NAH or equivalent research assays, data from more recent studies suggested that this form of clinically unapparent, but molecularly evident HCV infection could also be identified when clinical assays of enhanced sensitivity are employed. On this note, it was reported that using the Roche Cobas-Amplicor assay (sensitivity: 50 virus copies/mL), HCV RNA was detected in freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells of approximately 20% of individuals with clinical SVR[12]. Furthermore, in another study conducted by another group, over 11% of CHC patients who initially failed IFNα monotherapy, but achieved clinical SVR after successful completion of P-IFNα/RBV were also found to carry residual HCV RNA when their sera were tested by the Cobas-Amplicor assay[15].

In addition to the documentation of HCV RNA in serum or plasma, PBMC and hepatic tissue in patients with resolved hepatitis C in whom alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were deemed repeatedly normal, HCV genomes were also identified in the same three aforementioned compartments in patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes, who were consistently negative for serological markers typical of a bona fide HCV infection[111618].


Although hepatocytes are considered to be primary targets of HCV, clinical and experimental evidence strongly indicates that the virus also invades and replicates in cells of other organs, particularly the immune system[1921]. In doing so, HCV may effectively equip itself with one of the most efficient mechanisms to establish long-term, if not life-long, persistence, as it has been documented for other viruses equally capable of inducing protracted infections[2224]. The notion of HCV lymphotropism is further supported by a greater representation of disorders of the lymphatic system in patients with CHC than in those without, including type II mixed cryoglobulinemia[25] and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma[26].

Recent findings from our studies with different cohorts of patients with either spontaneous or therapy-induced resolution of hepatitis C showed that HCV RNA, on average, is detectable in freshly isolated PBMC in about 30% of cases, at levels ranging 100-1000 virus copies per 107 cells. However, in approximately 10% of such individuals, HCV RNA can reach 104 virus copies per 107 cells or higher, a level which is typically observed in patients with CHC[13]. In individuals where PBMC were apparently negative for HCV RNA, the use of mitogen cocktails supplemented with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 to stimulate T and B lymphocytes and monocytes in 72-h cultures, augments HCV replication in the respective cells leading to enhanced detection of the residing virus[91327]. Using this approach, HCV RNA positive strand could be identified in approximately 75% of seemingly HCV-negative cases[9131427]. Of note, the presence of HCV RNA positive strand in mitogen-treated cells is nearly always accompanied by that of HCV RNA negative (replicative) strand, indicative of authentic viral replication. Moreover, non-structural HCV proteins, such as NS5A, are also detectable in circulating immune cells, as our recent study clearly documented[14]. Interestingly, in many cases of occult infection, HCV RNA expression was found to be higher in cells treated with a cocktail of mitogens, which simultaneously stimulated different immune cell types, compared to those treated with single mitogens[1327]. This implied that within a given individual, different immune cell subsets may be infected with HCV. Indeed, this observation was unequivocally confirmed in our most recent study[14] in which different affinity-purified immune cell types, e.g. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells and monocytes, were found to be infected to a varying extent in different individuals. We have also established that HCV infection can be confined to a specific immune cell subtype, as evidenced by the presence of replicating HCV in affinity-purified cell types but not in total PBMC. This finding highlights the need to screen individual immune cell populations, in addition to PBMC, for possible HCV presence before occult infection can be irrefutably excluded.

The use of clonal sequencing and highly sensitive single-stranded conformational analysis (SSCP), which allows for identification of even single nucleotide polymorphisms, has enabled the identification of HCV variants which appeared unique to immune cells. For example, sequence polymorphisms located at the IRES of the 5’-UTR and the hypervariable region (HVR) of the second envelope glycoprotein (E2) were observed in lymphoid cells of individuals with occult persistent HCV infection[10121428]. The fact that these variants were different from those found in the serum or liver obtained in parallel further strengthened the notion of HCV lymphotropism[101214]. Additional support for the inherent propensity of HCV to infect and propagate in cells of the immune system came from in vitro studies documenting that certain substitutions found in individuals with occult HCV infection[101214] were identical to those that emerged from wild-type HCV passaged through untransformed T cell and lymphoblastoid cell cultures[2930].


As of now, clinical data pertinent to the clinical significance of occult HCV persistence are still in its infancy. However, it is hypothesized that persistent HCV replication in hepatocytes and lymphoid cells would likely lead to continuous antigenic stimulation of the immune system in immunocompetent patients, which in turn, allows the host to keep this silent infection under relative control. This concept has been supported by demonstration of sustained HCV-specific T cell cytotoxic and proliferative responses in patients years after recovery from hepatitis C[3133]. Similarly, T cell responses to HCV antigens were also evident in patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology who were HCV RNA reactive in both lymphoid cells and the liver[34]. On the other hand, such prolonged HCV replication associated with the continuous presentation of HCV antigens by infected B cells and monocytes may contribute to the immune tolerance of HCV, hence, favouring even further virus persistence. At present, it remains unknown whether and how infection of the immune cells by HCV may alter their functions, although impairment in the allostimulatory capacity of HCV-infected dendritic cells derived from patients with CHC has been reported[35].

In certain scenarios, including immunosuppression, immunomodulatory therapy or co-infection, instead of eliciting desirable T cell responses in the host, persistent replicating HCV could represent a potential source for virus reactivation, as it has been shown in other viruses, including hepatitis B virus[8] and human herpesvirus 6[36]. In this regard, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression has been shown to affect HCV reactivation years after spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C[37]. Along this line, recurrent HCV infection has been reported in liver transplant recipients who were deemed free of HCV RNA at the time of transplantation, as evidenced by negativity of HCV RNA in serum and the explanted liver tissue assessed by Cobas Amplicor assay with a sensitivity of 50 copies/mL[38]. Furthermore, HCV replication was found to be frequent among patients positive for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) who received HCV-negative kidney[39]. In this study, HCV became detectable around 30 d with the viremia peaking on d 62 post-transplantation. Similarly, approximately 18% of bone marrow recipients who were HCV seropositive prior to transplantation became reactive to HCV RNA after receiving a transplant from an apparently HCV-negative donor[40].


The availability of research assays capable of detecting HCV RNA at sensitivities superior to those offered by clinical assays significantly contributed to the recent discovery of occult HCV infection in individuals years after having been clinically deemed to have cleared the virus. Interestingly, when HCV reactivity in both plasma/serum and peripheral lymphomononuclear cells is taken into consideration, nearly all individuals with apparent complete resolution of hepatitis C can be found to carry low levels of HCV RNA. The fact that the HCV RNA replicative strand and viral proteins are detectable in immune cells, as well as that certain HCV variants are unique to immune cells, lends strong support to the existence of an extrahepatic compartment of HCV replication. Overall, the data accumulated in recent years highlight not only the need for development and implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays but also the importance of screening both serum and peripheral immune cells for HCV RNA[8]. At present, the data pertinent to pathogenic and epidemiological consequences of occult HCV infection remain very sparse. Further research in this area is of significant clinical relevance in which, as works from our and other groups have shown, an involvement of the infected immune system should not be neglected.


Peer reviewer: Thomas Bock, PhD, Professor, Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen D-72076, Germany

1.  El-Serag HB, Rudolph KL. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2557-2576.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
2.  Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Law MG, Thorpe M, Von Overbeck J, Lloyd AR, Marinos G, Kaldor JM. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology. 2001;34:809-816.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
3.  Brass V, Moradpour D, Blum HE. Molecular virology of hepatitis C virus (HCV): 2006 update. Int J Med Sci. 2006;3:29-34.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
4.  Strader DB, Wright T, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2004;39:1147-1171.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
5.  Kamal SM, El Tawil AA, Nakano T, He Q, Rasenack J, Hakam SA, Saleh WA, Ismail A, Aziz AA, Madwar MA. Peginterferon {alpha}-2b and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4: impact of treatment duration and viral kinetics on sustained virological response. Gut. 2005;54:858-866.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
6.  Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, Smith C, Marinos G, Goncales FL Jr, Haussinger D, Diago M, Carosi G, Dhumeaux D. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:975-982.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
7.  Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, Goodman ZD, Koury K, Ling M, Albrecht JK. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;358:958-965.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
8.  Michalak TI, Pham TNQ, Mulrooney-Cousins PM. Molecular diagnosis of occult hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections. Future Virol. 2007;2:451-465.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
9.  Pham TN, MacParland SA, Mulrooney PM, Cooksley H, Naoumov NV, Michalak TI. Hepatitis C virus persistence after spontaneous or treatment-induced resolution of hepatitis C. J Virol. 2004;78:5867-5874.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
10.  Radkowski M, Gallegos-Orozco JF, Jablonska J, Colby TV, Walewska-Zielecka B, Kubicka J, Wilkinson J, Adair D, Rakela J, Laskus T. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in patients successfully treated for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2005;41:106-114.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
11.  Castillo I, Rodriguez-Inigo E, Lopez-Alcorocho JM, Pardo M, Bartolome J, Carreno V. Hepatitis C virus replicates in the liver of patients who have a sustained response to antiviral treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1277-1283.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
12.  Di Liberto G, Roque-Afonso AM, Kara R, Ducoulombier D, Fallot G, Samuel D, Feray C. Clinical and therapeutic implications of hepatitis C virus compartmentalization. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:76-84.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
13.  Pham TN, Mulrooney-Cousins PM, Mercer SE, MacParland SA, Inglot M, Zalewska M, Simon K, Michalak TI. Antagonistic expression of hepatitis C virus and alpha interferon in lymphoid cells during persistent occult infection. J Viral Hepat. 2007;14:537-548.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
14.  Pham TN, King D, Macparland SA, McGrath JS, Reddy SB, Bursey FR, Michalak TI. Hepatitis C virus replicates in the same immune cell subsets in chronic hepatitis C and occult infection. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:812-822.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
15.  Ciancio A, Smedile A, Giordanino C, Colletta C, Croce G, Pozzi M, Cariti G, Macor A, Biglino A, Di Napoli A. Long-term follow-up of previous hepatitis C virus positive nonresponders to interferon monotherapy successfully retreated with combination therapy: are they really cured? Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1811-1816.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
16.  Castillo I, Pardo M, Bartolome J, Ortiz-Movilla N, Rodriguez-Inigo E, de Lucas S, Salas C, Jimenez-Heffernan JA, Perez-Mota A, Graus J. Occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients in whom the etiology of persistently abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:7-14.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
17.  Bartolome J, Lopez-Alcorocho JM, Castillo I, Rodriguez-Inigo E, Quiroga JA, Palacios R, Carreno V. Ultracentrifugation of serum samples allows detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in patients with occult hepatitis C. J Virol. 2007;81:7710-7715.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
18.  Carreno V. Occult hepatitis C virus infection: a new form of hepatitis C. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6922-6925.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
19.  Blackard JT, Kemmer N, Sherman KE. Extrahepatic replication of HCV: insights into clinical manifestations and biological consequences. Hepatology. 2006;44:15-22.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
20.  Pham TN, Michalak TI. Occult hepatits C virus persistence: identification and characteristics. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2006;38:20-22.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
21.  Radkowski M, Wilkinson J, Nowicki M, Adair D, Vargas H, Ingui C, Rakela J, Laskus T. Search for hepatitis C virus negative-strand RNA sequences and analysis of viral sequences in the central nervous system: evidence of replication. J Virol. 2002;76:600-608.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
22.  Oldstone MB. Virus-lymphoid cell interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:12756-12758.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
23.  Ciurea A, Klenerman P, Hunziker L, Horvath E, Odermatt B, Ochsenbein AF, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. Persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at very low levels in immune mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:11964-11969.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
24.  Michalak TI. Occult persistence and lymphotropism of hepadnaviral infection: insights from the woodchuck viral hepatitis model. Immunol Rev. 2000;174:98-111.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
25.  Agnello V, De Rosa FG. Extrahepatic disease manifestations of HCV infection: some current issues. J Hepatol. 2004;40:341-352.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
26.  Matsuo K, Kusano A, Sugumar A, Nakamura S, Tajima K, Mueller NE. Effect of hepatitis C virus infection on the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Sci. 2004;95:745-752.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
27.  Pham TN, Macparland SA, Coffin CS, Lee SS, Bursey FR, Michalak TI. Mitogen-induced upregulation of hepatitis C virus expression in human lymphoid cells. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:657-666.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
28.  Ducoulombier D, Roque-Afonso AM, Di Liberto G, Penin F, Kara R, Richard Y, Dussaix E, Feray C. Frequent compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus variants in circulating B cells and monocytes. Hepatology. 2004;39:817-825.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
29.  MacParland SA, Pham TN, Gujar SA, Michalak TI. De novo infection and propagation of wild-type Hepatitis C virus in human T lymphocytes in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3577-3586.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
30.  Nakajima N, Hijikata M, Yoshikura H, Shimizu YK. Characterization of long-term cultures of hepatitis C virus. J Virol. 1996;70:3325-3329.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
31.  Cramp ME, Carucci P, Rossol S, Chokshi S, Maertens G, Williams R, Naoumov NV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) specific immune responses in anti-HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viraemia. Gut. 1999;44:424-429.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
32.  Quiroga JA, Llorente S, Castillo I, Rodriguez-Inigo E, Lopez-Alcorocho JM, Pardo M, Carreno V. Virus-specific T cell responses associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence in the liver after apparent recovery from HCV infection. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1190-1197.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
33.  Takaki A, Wiese M, Maertens G, Depla E, Seifert U, Liebetrau A, Miller JL, Manns MP, Rehermann B. Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat Med. 2000;6:578-582.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
34.  Quiroga JA, Llorente S, Castillo I, Rodriguez-Inigo E, Pardo M, Carreno V. Cellular immune responses associated with occult hepatitis C virus infection of the liver. J Virol. 2006;80:10972-10979.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
35.  Bain C, Fatmi A, Zoulim F, Zarski JP, Trepo C, Inchauspe G. Impaired allostimulatory functions of dendritic cells in chronic hepatitis C patients. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:512-524.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
36.  Caserta MT, McDermott MP, Dewhurst S, Schnabel K, Carnahan JA, Gilbert L, Lathan G, Lofthus GK, Hall CB. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA persistence and reactivation in healthy children. J Pediatr. 2004;145:478-484.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
37.  Lee WM, Polson JE, Carney DS, Sahin B, Gale M Jr. Reemergence of hepatitis C virus after 8.5 years in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia: evidence for an occult viral reservoir. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1088-1092.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
38.  Forns X, Garcia-Retortillo M, Serrano T, FeliuSuarez F, de la Mata M, Garcia-Valdecasas JC, Navasa M, Rimola A, Rodes J. Antiviral therapy of patients with decompensated cirrhosis to prevent recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. J Hepatol. 2003;39:389-396.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
39.  Melon S, Galarraga MC, Villar M, Laures A, Boga JA, de Ona M, Gomez E. Hepatitis C virus reactivation in anti-hepatitis C virus positive renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:2083-2085.  [PubMed]  [DOI]
40.  Zekri AR, Mohamed WS, Samra MA, Sherif GM, El-Shehaby AM, El-Sayed MH. Risk factors for cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C virus reactivation after bone marrow transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2004;13:305-311.  [PubMed]  [DOI]