Copyright ©2006 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 14, 2006; 12(10): 1521-1528
Published online Mar 14, 2006. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i10.1521
Table 1 Various evidences to support the congenital and acquired theories
EvidencesCongenital theoryAcquired theory
Epidemiological1 Cases in children 2 Cases without demonstrated reflux1 Association with gastroesophageal reflux 2 Usual occurrence after middle age
Morphological1 Neonate with columnar-lined esophagus 2 Adult with involvement of entire esophagus 3 Islands of heterotopic/ectopic gastric mucosa 4 Cases with squamous epithelium interposed between Barrett's and gastric mucosa 5 Cases with linear, smooth squamo-columnar junction 6 Presence of parietal and chief cells in Barrett's mucosa1 Absence of typical cases in fetuses 2 Presence of intestinal-type goblet cells and sulphomucins. 3 Absence of gastrin-containing cells. 4 Endoscopic demonstration of upwards migration of Barrett's mucosa with ongoing gastroesophageal reflux
Experimental1 Failure of experimental models 2 Absence of reversion to squamous epithelium after antireflux operation1 Animal models. 2 Regression after successful antireflux surgery. 3 Acquisition of Barrett's mucosa after onset of reflux following esophagogastrostomy, Heller myotomy and esophagojejunostomy.