Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 7, 2020; 26(21): 2758-2767
Published online Jun 7, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i21.2758
Figure 1
Figure 1 Function of two distinct lamina propria dendritic cells in the small intestine. Mouse small-intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) are divided into two subsets on the basis of CD11c and CD11b expression. CD11chiCD11blo LPDCs express Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR7 and TLR9, whereas CD11chiCD11bhi LPDCs express TLR5 and TLR9. After TLR stimulation, activated CD11chiCD11bhi LPDCs can produce interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-6, transforming growth factor-β and retinoic acid, and subsequently induce antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses and antigen-specific-IgA-producing plasma cells. In contrast to CD11chiCD11bhi LPDCs, activated CD11chiCD11blo LPDCs can induce antigen-specific Th1 responses, but not antigen-specific Th17 responses and antigen-specific-IgA-producing plasma cells. TLR: Toll-like receptor; TGF: Transforming growth factor; IL: Interleukin; DC: Dendritic cell.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Scheme of antigen-specific immune responses by prime–boost vaccination. Parenteral immunization with antigen emulsified in curdlan and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides induces antigen-specific fecal IgA as well as serum IgG and splenic Th1 and Th17 responses. Once primed, high titers of long-lasting antigen-specific lung, intestinal, or vaginal IgA are induced after nasal, oral, or vaginal antigen administration, respectively. Also, antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses are induced at the targeted organs. CpG-ODN: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides.