Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7, 2015; 21(41): 11815-11824
Published online Nov 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i41.11815
Figure 1
Figure 1 The inflammatory pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis. Lactulose, rifaximin, and probiotics not only reduce the circulating levels of ammonia but also modulate intestinal flora, lower the endotoxemia and inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. MARS treatment also decreases the circulating levels of ammonia and pro-inflammatory cytokines.