Retrospective Cohort Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 21, 2022; 28(35): 5175-5187
Published online Sep 21, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i35.5175
Natural history and outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by hepatic hydrothorax
Sarah Romero, Andy KH Lim, Gurpreet Singh, Chamani Kodikara, Rachel Shingaki-Wells, Lynna Chen, Samuel Hui, Marcus Robertson
Sarah Romero, Chamani Kodikara, Rachel Shingaki-Wells, Samuel Hui, Marcus Robertson, Department of Gastroenterology, Monash Health, Clayton 3168, Victoria, Australia
Andy KH Lim, Marcus Robertson, Department of General Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton 3168, Victoria, Australia
Gurpreet Singh, Lynna Chen, Gastroenterology and Liver Transplant Unit, Austin Health, Heidelberg 3084, Victoria, Australia
Author contributions: Romero S, Lim AK and Robertson M performed literature review, data analysis and interpretation and manuscript composition and critical revision; Lim AK, Robertson M and Hui S conducted statistical analysis; Romero S, Singh G, Kodikara C, Shangaki-Wells R and Chen L performed data acquisition; Robertson M was responsible for study concept and design; and all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: The Human Research Ethics Committee at Monash Health and Austin Health approved the study as a quality assurance activity and the committee provided a waiver for informed consent (RES-19-0000-343Q).
Informed consent statement: The informed consent was waived by the Human Research Ethics Committee.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and dataset available from the corresponding author at Patient consent was not obtained for this study, however study data has been anonymised.
STROBE statement: That authors have read the STROBE statement-checklist, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the STROBE statement-checklist of items.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Sarah Romero, FRACP, MBBS, Doctor, Department of Gastroenterology, Monash Health, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton 3168, Victoria, Australia.
Received: January 24, 2022
Peer-review started: January 24, 2022
First decision: April 10, 2022
Revised: April 28, 2022
Accepted: July 25, 2022
Article in press: July 25, 2022
Published online: September 21, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: The development of hepatic hydrothorax (HH) in cirrhotic patients continues to be associated with a very poor prognosis despite current standards-of-care. In one of the largest series to investigate the natural history of patients with hepatic hydrothoraces, a 45-d overall survival rate of 80% and 12-mo transplant-free survival of 41% was observed after index hospitalisation with HH. At multivariate analysis, current smoking and development of acute kidney injury were both independently associated with mortality, and represent important modifiable risk factors.