Published online Jul 21, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i27.4371
Peer-review started: January 28, 2021
First decision: May 2, 2021
Revised: May 10, 2021
Accepted: June 22, 2021
Article in press: June 22, 2021
Published online: July 21, 2021
Core Tip: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the relative risk is not as high as previously reported. Persistent pancreatic inflammation plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, and genetic mutations implicated in the pathogenesis of CP are not directly involved in the development of PC. Although surgery for CP reduces the risk of PC, the evidence is not strong enough to recommend routine prophylactic surgery in CP patients. The risk stratification proposed in this review considers the genetic and environmental factors that could guide future prospective studies and select patients for prophylactic surgery.