Published online Sep 21, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i35.5256
Peer-review started: May 25, 2020
First decision: July 29, 2020
Revised: July 29, 2020
Accepted: August 12, 2020
Article in press: August 12, 2020
Published online: September 21, 2020
Core Tip: Deep-learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) is a breakthrough technology that has been widely explored in diagnosis, treatment and prediction of esophageal cancer. Recent studies have dealt with limitations of previous researches, including small sample size, selection bias, lack of external validation and algorithm efficiency. Favorable outcomes that are comparable to experienced endoscopists have been achieved with satisfactory robustness, indicating a real-time potential. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to further address these issues concerning AI to provide an ultimate patient-centered satisfaction, in an interpretable, ethical and legal manner.