Published online Apr 7, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i13.1531
Peer-review started: January 29, 2019
First decision: February 26, 2019
Revised: March 5, 2019
Accepted: March 11, 2019
Article in press: March 12, 2019
Published online: April 7, 2019
Core tip: The right upper quadrant of the abdomen is advantageous for laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy is safe and feasible, although this laparoscopic approach involves technical difficulties. Endoscopic sphincterotomy destroys the physiological function of Oddi’s sphincter. Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy has excellent clinical outcomes; however, emergent biliary drainage and removal of anesthetic risk factors are required preoperatively. Cholangiographic removal of stones strongly affects operative time. Cholangioscopy has only two-way operation; using dedicated forceps to atraumatically grasp the cholangioscope is important for smart maneuvering.