Case Control Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 14, 2017; 23(14): 2527-2538
Published online Apr 14, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i14.2527
Colors of vegetables and fruits and the risks of colorectal cancer
Jeeyoo Lee, Aesun Shin, Jae Hwan Oh, Jeongseon Kim
Jeeyoo Lee, Aesun Shin, Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, South Korea
Jae Hwan Oh, Center for Colorectal Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si 10408, South Korea
Jeongseon Kim, Molecular Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si 10408, South Korea
Author contributions: Shin A and Kim J contributed equally to this manuscript, and considered to be the co-corresponding authors; Lee J performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript; Shin A and Kim J advised the statistical analysis and helped to draft the manuscript; Shin A, Oh JH and Kim J conceived of the study and reviewed, guided, and edited the manuscript; all authors approved the final manuscript.
Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, No. 2010-0010276 and No. 2013R1A1A2A10008260; and the National Cancer Center, Korea, No. 0910220 and No. 1210141.
Institutional review board statement: The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Center (IRB No. NCCNCS-10-350 and NCC2015-0202).
Informed consent statement: All patients gave informed consent.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and dataset available from the corresponding author at and
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Jeongseon Kim, PhD, Molecular Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Research Institute, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si 10408, South Korea.
Telephone: +82-31-9202570 Fax: +82-31-9202579
Received: November 17, 2016
Peer-review started: November 18, 2016
First decision: January 10, 2017
Revised: February 20, 2017
Accepted: March 20, 2017
Article in press: March 20, 2017
Published online: April 14, 2017
Core Tip

Core tip: Although many studies have focused on the associations between vegetable and fruit intake and health, few studies have classified vegetables and fruits by their colors, which reflect their unique contents of phytochemicals and micronutrients. In the current study, most color groups of vegetables and fruits showed protective benefits against colorectal cancer regardless of the anatomical subsites.