Published online Jul 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i25.5623
Peer-review started: May 4, 2016
First decision: May 27, 2016
Revised: May 31, 2016
Accepted: June 13, 2016
Article in press: June 13, 2016
Published online: July 7, 2016
Core tip: Immune related mechanisms have been shown to eliminate both Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) from chronically infected host cells via non-cytolytic mechanisms. Current direct-acting antivirals against replication of both HBV and HCV are effective and provide significant viral suppression in a relatively short period of time. This time window should be harnessed to target host-mediated immune mechanisms to clear the host of the infection. This strategy would lead to a significant reduction in cost, duration, side effects and development of resistance associated with direct-acting antivirals therapy. In summary, regimens combining chemo- and immuno-therapy must be used in a mutually beneficial manner to eradicate HBV and/or HCV from a host.