Published online Dec 28, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i48.13432
Peer-review started: August 26, 2015
First decision: September 29, 2015
Revised: October 17, 2015
Accepted: December 8, 2015
Article in press: December 8, 2015
Published online: December 28, 2015
Core tip:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with a variety of upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication treatment failure affects the outcome of these diseases. The eradication rate of triple antibiotic therapy, the worldwide gold standard, is currently less than 80% in most parts of the world. Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for treatment failure, therefore the standard triple regimen is no longer suitable as a first-line treatment for the majority of the world. H. pylori eradication treatment may fail for a number of reasons, including H. pylori strain factors, host factors, environmental factors, and inappropriate treatment.