Hepatitis B and C virus-induced hepatitis: Apoptosis, autophagy, and unfolded protein response
Behzad Yeganeh, Martin Post, Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 0A4, Canada
Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil 156131-56491, Iran
Javad Alizadeh, Saeid Ghavami, Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Canada
Javad Alizadeh, Kevin M Coombs, Saeid Ghavami, The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Canada
Emilia Wiechec, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, 581-85 Linköping, Sweden
Seyed Moayed Alavian, Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (BRCGL), 1417-613151 Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Hashemi, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan 43181-98167, Iran
Bita Geramizadeh, Department of Pathology and Organ Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
Afshin Samali, Department of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, 000 Galway, Ireland
Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Payam Peymani, Saeid Ghavami, Health Policy Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran
Kevin M Coombs, Manitoba Center for Proteomics and Systems Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Canada
Kevin M Coombs, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Canada
Author contributions: Yeganeh B and Post M performed fluorescence immunohistochemistry, tissue array; Yeganeh B interpreted the data, drafted the whole primary version of manuscript; Rezaei Moghadam A and Alizadeh J analyzed the fluorescence immunohistochemistry results, participated in preparing the apoptosis and autophagy parts of manuscript, respectively; Wiechec E analyzed the fluorescence immunohistochemistry and tissue array results, drafted of the autophagy and apoptosis part of manuscript; Alavian SM diagnosed and got liver biopsy of HBV patients; Hashemi M contributed PCR or samples for HBV and HCV virus titer, and analyzed the fluorescence immunohistochemistry results; Geramizadeh B contributed pathology diagnosis, scoring, and graded of HBV and HCV biopsies; Samali A contributed unfolded protein response, and proof final versions of the manuscript; Bagheri Lankarani K diagnosed and got liver biopsy of HCV patients; Peymani P prepared liver biopsy sample, biochemical liver function, statistical analysis; Coombs KM and Ghavami S designed the project, and proofed final versions of the manuscript; Ghavami S prepared primary draft of UPR part of manuscript; Peymani P, Coombs KM and Ghavami S had equal senior authorship.
Supported by University of Manitoba Start-up funds and an award from the Manitoba Medical Service Foundation to Ghavami S; University of Manitoba Start-up Funds to Alizadeh J.
Institutional review board statement: This retrospective study was approved by local research ethics committee of Health policy research Center (Protocol number HP-101-91). All patients were informed about the study and gave verbal informed consent prior to enrollment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors do not have any conflict of interest.
Data sharing statement: This is an open access work and the researcher can use the data for any further investigations.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Saeid Ghavami, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3E 0J9, Room 104, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: +1-204-2723061 Fax: +1-204-7893920
Received: August 29, 2015
Peer-review started: August 30, 2015
First decision: September 29, 2015
Revised: October 14, 2015
Accepted: November 13, 2015
Article in press: November 13, 2015
Published online: December 21, 2015