Published online Nov 14, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i42.12022
Peer-review started: May 6, 2015
First decision: June 23, 2015
Revised: July 31, 2015
Accepted: September 30, 2015
Article in press: September 30, 2015
Published online: November 14, 2015
Core tip: Targeted nanoparticles have gained considerable attention as an efficient drug and gene delivery system in hepatocellular carcinoma owing to their capability for achieving the highest accumulation of cytotoxic agents in tumor tissue, modifiable drug pharmacokinetic- and bio-distribution, improved effectiveness of treatment, and limited side-effects. This review covers a broad spectrum of targeted nanoparticles as therapeutic and non-viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery systems, which are developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. Their characteristics and opportunities for the clinical applications of drugs and therapeutic siRNA are discussed in this article.