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World J Gastroenterol. Nov 14, 2014; 20(42): 15549-15563
Published online Nov 14, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i42.15549
Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: Basic principles, present situation and future perspectives
María-Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez, Bertrand Napoléon
María-Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez, Bertrand Napoléon, Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Lyon 69008, France
María-Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez, Department of Gastroenterology, Complejo Hospitalario de Pontevedra, Pontevedra 36071, Spain
Author contributions: Alvarez-Sánchez MV contributed to reviewing the literature, writing and drafting the article; Napoléon B was responsible for writing and drafting the article, critical revision and final approval.
Correspondence to: Bertrand Napoléon, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, 55 Jean Mermoz Avenue, Lyon 69008, France.
Telephone: +33-47-8756743 Fax: +33-47-8742655
Received: December 6, 2013
Revised: April 23, 2014
Accepted: May 19, 2014
Published online: November 14, 2014
Core Tip

Core tip: The recent development of stabilised contrast agents and enhancements to the endoscopic ultrasound equipment have opened an avenue for the real-time imaging of parenchymal microvascularisation without Doppler-related artefacts. Preliminary experience suggests that contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound (CH-EUS) is superior to other imaging techniques, such as EUS or computed tomography, in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses and other gastrointestinal diseases. In this paper, we describe the basic principles and technical aspects of performing this new technique and analyse the clinical value of CH-EUS and its potential applications in the near future.