Published online May 21, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i19.5583
Revised: December 14, 2013
Accepted: February 20, 2014
Published online: May 21, 2014
Core tip:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori actively induce tolerogenic signals and can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, H. pylori also promote a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors confers pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries.