Published online Nov 7, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i41.7048
Revised: August 16, 2013
Accepted: August 28, 2013
Published online: November 7, 2013
Core tip: This review summarizes the evidence for neuromodulation of fecal incontinence. Neuromodulation is effective for some patients with fecal incontinence of different etiology unknown mechanism; when analyzed by intent to treat analysis, the median responder rate is 59%. The most common serious adverse event is infection at the site of implant which occurs in about 3% of patients. Cost of treatment is high relative to conservative treatment and biofeedback but seems to be cost-effective when offset by gains in quality-adjusted years. Randomized controlled trials comparing neuromodulation with biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence are advisable to tailor patients’ management.