Published online May 21, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i19.2394
Peer-review started: January 23, 2021
First decision: February 10, 2021
Revised: February 17, 2021
Accepted: April 14, 2021
Article in press: April 14, 2021
Published online: May 21, 2021
Gut microbiota dysbiosis is reportedly actively involved in autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the alterations in the gut microbiota and their correlation with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in Chinese children with T1DM remain unclear.
Most of the previous studies on the T1DM-associated microbiota were conducted in the United States and Europe. However, differences in lifestyle, dietary constitution, environmental exposure, and host genetic background between Chinese and Western populations may contribute to disparities in the baseline microbiota composition, which may influence the roles of specific bacteria in the etiopathology of T1DM.
Our present study aimed to investigate alterations in the gut microbiota in Chinese children with T1DM and their associations with clinical indicators.
Samples from 51 children with T1DM and 47 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained to explore the structural and functional alterations in the fecal microbiota. The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced on a MiSeq instrument and the association with FBG was analyzed.
We found that the bacterial diversity was significantly increased in the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota, and changes in the microbial composition were observed at different taxonomic levels. The T1DM-reduced differentially abundant taxa, such as Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC8482, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, and Flavonifractor plautii, were negatively correlated with FBG, while the T1DM-enriched taxa, such as Blautia, Eubacterium hallii group, Anaerostipes hadrus, and Dorea longicatena, were positively correlated with FBG. Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC8482, Bacteroides ovatus, the Eubacterium hallii group, and Anaerostipes hadrus, either alone or in combination, could be used as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers to discriminate children with T1DM from healthy controls. In addition, the functional changes in the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota also suggest that these fecal microbes were associated with altered functions and metabolic activities, such as glycan biosynthesis and metabolism and lipid metabolism, which might play vital roles in the pathogenesis and development of T1DM.
Our present comprehensive investigation of the T1DM-associated fecal microbiota provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of the disease and sheds light on the diagnosis and treatment of T1DM.
Further causal-development studies based on the present results will expand the knowledge on the pathogenesis of T1DM, which will help to provide microbiota-targeted T1DM diagnosis and treatment.