Observational Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 7, 2018; 24(37): 4281-4290
Published online Oct 7, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i37.4281
Risk factors for liver disease among adults of Mexican descent in the United States and Mexico
Yvonne N Flores, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Roshan Bastani, Mei Leng, Catherine M Crespi, Paula Ramírez-Palacios, Heather Stevens, Jorge Salmerón
Yvonne N Flores, Paula Ramírez-Palacios, Jorge Salmerón, Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Delegación Morelos, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62000, México
Yvonne N Flores, Roshan Bastani, UCLA Department of Health Policy and Management and Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Equity, Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States
Yvonne N Flores, Roshan Bastani, Catherine M Crespi, UCLA Cancer Prevention and Control Research Center, Fielding School of Public Health and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States
Zuo-Feng Zhang, UCLA Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States
Mei Leng, UCLA Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States
Catherine M Crespi, UCLA Department of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States
Heather Stevens, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
Jorge Salmerón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Academic Epidemiology Research Unit, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, Mexico City 04510, México
Jorge Salmerón, Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62100, México
Author contributions: Flores YN, Zhang ZF, Bastani R, Leng M, Crespi CM, Ramírez-Palacios P, Stevens H, Salmerón J contributed to the study design; statistical analysis; interpretation of the findings; writing the article and approval of the final draft.
Supported by the Programa de Investigació; n en Migracion y Salud (PIMSA), No. 2015-2106; the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), No. 2005/1/I/093; and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologí; a (CONACYT), No. 26267M and No. SALUD-2011-01-161930; the NIH, No. UL1TR000124 to Crespi CM, and NIH/NCI No. K07CA197179 to Flores YN.
Institutional review board statement: Approval for both the Health Worker Cohort Study and this bi-national investigation was obtained from the Internal Review Boards of IMSS and UCLA.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors declare no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
STROBE statement: The guidelines of the STROBE Statement have been adopted.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Yvonne N Flores, PhD, Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Delegación Morelos, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Blvd. Juárez #31, Colonia Centro, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62000, México. ynflores@ucla.edu
Telephone: +52-777-1001364
Received: June 20, 2018
Peer-review started: June 20, 2018
First decision: July 4, 2018
Revised: August 1, 2018
Accepted: August 24, 2018
Article in press: August 24, 2018
Published online: October 7, 2018
Research background

United States (US) Latinos have greater morbidity and mortality from liver disease than non-Hispanic whites. Liver disease is the fifth leading cause of death in Mexico. In the US, Mexican-Americans have a greater risk of obesity, diabetes and heavy/binge drinking than in Mexico.

Research motivation

Over 30 million people are likely to have some form of chronic liver disease (CLD) in the US. CLD is the 12th leading cause of general mortality in the US.

Research objectives

To compare the prevalence of CLD risk factors in a representative sample of Mexican-Americans, born in the US or Mexico, to a sample of adults in Mexico.

Research methods

The main independent variables for this study classified individuals by country of residence and place of birth. Regression analyses were used to investigate CLD risk factors.

Research results

There is a greater risk among US-born vs Mexico-born Mexican-Americans.

Research conclusions

Mexican-Americans in the US had more risk factors for CLD.

Research perspectives

Our findings add to the relatively scarce literature on bi-national research, providing preliminary data for future studies of migrant health in the US and Mexico. Other bi-national primary data collection projects with representative samples and comparable demographic, socioeconomic and health status measures are needed to further investigate the growing problem of CLD among Mexicans in both countries.