Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 14, 2024; 30(6): 523-526
Published online Feb 14, 2024. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v30.i6.523
Unmet needs in biomarkers for autoimmune pancreatitis diagnosis
Bao-Can Wang, Jian-Gao Fan
Bao-Can Wang, Jian-Gao Fan, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China
Author contributions: Fan JG conceived and outlined the manuscript; Wang BC reviewed the literature, wrote and edited the manuscript; both authors have read and approved the final version to be published.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Jian-Gao Fan, MD, Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China. fanjiangao@xinhuamed.com.cn
Received: December 14, 2023
Peer-review started: December 14, 2023
First decision: December 28, 2023
Revised: January 10, 2024
Accepted: January 15, 2024
Article in press: January 15, 2024
Published online: February 14, 2024

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare chronic autoimmune disorder. The diagnosis of AIP mainly depends on histopathology, imaging and response to treatment. Serum immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4) is used only as collateral evidence in diagnostic criteria for AIP because of its moderate sensitivity. Serum IgG4 levels are normal in 15%-37% of type 1 AIP and most of type 2 AIP patients. In these patients, the indeterminate imaging and histopathology may lead to the difficulty in definitive diagnosis of AIP. Therefore, discovery of new biomarkers is important for AIP diagnosis. Here, we provide some views on the progression and challenges in identifying novel serological biomarkers in AIP diagnosis.

Keywords: Autoimmune pancreatitis, Immunoglobulin G4, Biomarker, Cytokine, Autoantibody

Core Tip: Serum immunoglobulin 4 is currently the only biomarker and highly specific but moderately sensitive for diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Some cytokines and antibodies have been shown potential in AIP diagnosis.