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World J Gastroenterol. Apr 7, 2023; 29(13): 1955-1968
Published online Apr 7, 2023. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v29.i13.1955
Comprehensive review on small common bile duct stones
Sakue Masuda, Kazuya Koizumi, Kento Shionoya, Ryuhei Jinushi, Makomo Makazu, Takashi Nishino, Karen Kimura, Chihiro Sumida, Jun Kubota, Chikamasa Ichita, Akiko Sasaki, Masahiro Kobayashi, Makoto Kako, Uojima Haruki
Sakue Masuda, Kazuya Koizumi, Kento Shionoya, Ryuhei Jinushi, Makomo Makazu, Takashi Nishino, Karen Kimura, Chihiro Sumida, Jun Kubota, Chikamasa Ichita, Akiko Sasaki, Masahiro Kobayashi, Makoto Kako, Department of Gastroenterology, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kanagawa 247-8533, Japan
Uojima Haruki, Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0375, Japan
Author contributions: Masuda S and Koizumi K were major contributors to writing the manuscript; Shionoya K, Jinushi R, Makazu M, Nishino T, and Kimura K designed the outline and coordinated the writing of the manuscript; Sumida C, Kubota J, Ichita C, Sasaki A, Kobayashi M, Kako M, and Haruki U provided input for writing the paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Sakue Masuda, MD, Chief Doctor, Department of Gastroenterology, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, 1370-1 Okamoto, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8533, Japan. sakue.masuda@tokushukai.jp
Received: December 1, 2022
Peer-review started: December 1, 2022
First decision: January 14, 2023
Revised: January 22, 2023
Accepted: March 20, 2023
Article in press: March 20, 2023
Published online: April 7, 2023
Processing time: 126 Days and 21.8 Hours
Abstract

Common bile duct stones are among the most common conditions encountered by endoscopists. Therefore, it is well researched; however, some items, such as indications for endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD), safety of EPBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy or direct oral anticoagulant, selection strategy for retrieval balloons and baskets, lack adequate evidence. Therefore, the guidelines have been updated with new research, while others remain unchanged due to weak evidence. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the standard methods in guidelines and new findings from recent studies on papillary dilation, stone retrieval devices, difficult-to-treat cases, troubleshooting during the procedure, and complicated cases of cholangitis, cholecystolithiasis, or distal biliary stricture.

Keywords: Choledocholithotomy, Choledocholithiasis, Common bile duct stones, Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation, Endoscopic sphincterotomy, Small common bile duct stones

Core Tip: In this review, we comprehensively summarized the standard methods for patients with small common bile duct stones in guidelines and new findings from recent studies on papillary dilation, stone retrieval devices, difficult-to-treat cases, troubleshooting during the procedure, and complicated cases of cholangitis, cholecystolithiasis, or distal biliary stricture.