Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 14, 2021; 27(26): 4160-4171
Published online Jul 14, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i26.4160
Inflammatory effect on the gastrointestinal system associated with COVID-19
Paulina Delgado-Gonzalez, Carlos A Gonzalez-Villarreal, Jorge A Roacho-Perez, Adriana G Quiroz-Reyes, Jose Francisco Islas, Juan Luis Delgado-Gallegos, Daniel Arellanos-Soto, Kame A Galan-Huerta, Elsa N Garza-Treviño
Paulina Delgado-Gonzalez, Jorge A Roacho-Perez, Adriana G Quiroz-Reyes, Jose Francisco Islas, Juan Luis Delgado-Gallegos, Daniel Arellanos-Soto, Kame A Galan-Huerta, Elsa N Garza-Treviño, Departamento de Bioquimica y Medicina Molecular, UANL, Monterrey 64610, Nuevo León, Mexico
Carlos A Gonzalez-Villarreal, Universidad de Monterrey, UDEM Vicerrectoria de Ciencias de la Salud, Monterrey 66238, Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Author contributions: Delgado-Gonzalez P made the literature analysis and wrote; Gonzalez-Villarreal CA and Roacho-Perez J discussed the revised manuscript of this review; Quiroz-Reyes AG and Arellanos-Soto D design of the images, wrote, analyzed, and corrected the manuscript; Islas JF, Delgado-Gallegos JL and Galan-Huerta KA made the literature analysis and wrote part of the text and corrected the manuscript; Garza-Treviño EN supervised, directed and edited the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors indicated no potential conflicts of interest in publishing this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Elsa N Garza-Treviño, MSc, PhD, Research Associate, Bioquimica y Medicina Molecular, UANL, Ave. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de Los Garza, Monterrey 66455, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Received: January 28, 2021
Peer-review started: January 29, 2021
First decision: May 13, 2021
Revised: May 27, 2021
Accepted: June 17, 2021
Article in press: June 17, 2021
Published online: July 14, 2021

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has provoked a global pandemic, mainly affecting the respiratory tract; however, a percentage of infected individuals can develop gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Some studies describe the development of GI symptoms and how they affect the progression of COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the main mechanisms associated with gut damage during infection by SARS-CoV-2 as well as other organs such as the liver and pancreas. Not only are host factors associated with severe COVID-19 but intestinal microbiota dysbiosis is also observed in patients with severe disease.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Gastrointestinal symptoms, COVID-19, Gastrointestinal system

Core Tip: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) affects not only the respiratory systems but also gastrointestinal (GI) system and function of others organs. Until now, the mechanism of infection that severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2 uses is not fully known. GI symptoms are rare but had great relevance in the severity of disease. We summarize the main known mechanisms that are associated with intestinal damage, and the knowledge that is had about the impact of COVID-19 on the liver and pancreas.