Published online Jan 7, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i1.107
Peer-review started: November 9, 2020
First decision: November 23, 2020
Revised: December 7, 2020
Accepted: December 16, 2020
Article in press: December 16, 2020
Published online: January 7, 2021
Shifting on lifestyle, diet, and physical activity contributed on increasing number of obese people around the world. Multiple factors influence the development of obesity. Some research suggested that gut microbiota (GM) plays an important role in nutrient absorption and energy regulation of individuals, thus affecting their nutritional status. Report of Indonesia Basic Health Research showed that the prevalence of obesity in every province tended to increase. Although the root cause of obesity is excessive calorie intake compared with expenditure, the differences in gut microbial ecology between healthy and obese humans may affect energy homeostasis. GM affect body weight, especially obesity. Probiotics that are consumed while alive and able to colonize in the intestine are expected to increase the population of good bacteria, especially Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, and suppress pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus. The strain of L. plantarum Dad-13 has been demonstrated to survive and colonize in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy Indonesian adults who consume fermented milk containing L. plantarum Dad-13. The consumption of probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 powder decreased E. coli and non-E. coli coliform bacteria in school-aged children in Indonesia. L. plantarum is a dominant bacterium in the average Indonesian’s GM. For this reason, this bacterium is probably a more suitable probiotic for Indonesians.
To determine the effect of the consumption of indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 powder in overweight adults in Yogyakarta (Indonesia).
Sixty overweight volunteers with a body mass index (BMI) equal to or greater than 25 consume indigenous probiotic powder L. plantarum Dad-13 (2 × 109 CFU/gram/sachet) for 90 d. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The volunteers filled in a diary on a daily basis, which consisted of questions on study product intake (only during ingestion period), other food intake, number of bowel movements, fecal quality (consistency and color), any medications received, and any symptom of discomfort, such as diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, gassing, sensation of illness, etc. Fecal samples and the subjects’ diaries were collected on the morning of day 10 + 1, which was marked as the end of the baseline period and the start of the ingestion period. During the ingestion period (from day 11 to day 101), several parameters to measure and analyze the results included body weight and height (once a month), the lipid profile, GM analysis using MiSeq, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) analysis using gas chromatography, and the measurement of fecal pH using a pH meter.
The consumption of indigenous probiotic powder L. plantarum Dad-13 caused the average body weight and BMI of the probiotic group to decrease from 84.54 ± 17.64 kg to 83.14 ± 14.71 kg and 33.10 ± 6.15 kg/m2 to 32.57 ± 5.01 kg/m2, respectively. No significant reduction of body weight and BMI in the placebo group was observed. An analysis of the microbiota showed that the number of Bacteroidetes, specifically Prevotella, increased significantly, while that of Firmicutes significantly decreased. No significant change in lipid profile in both groups was found. Also, no significant change in SCFAs (e.g., butyrate, propionate, acetic acid) and pH level was found after the consumption of the probiotic.
No significant differences in pH before and after ingestion were observed in both the probiotic and placebo groups as well as in the lipid profile of both cholesterol and triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and the LDL/HDL ratio. In addition, no significant changes in the concentration of SCFAs (e.g., acetic acid, propionate, and butyrate) were found after con-sumption. Interestingly, a significant decrease in body weight and BMI (P < 0.05) was determined in the treatment group. An analysis of GM shows that L. plantarum Dad-13 caused the Firmicutes population to decrease and the Bacteroidetes population (especially Prevotella) to increase.
Core Tip: Obesity and overweight are corelated with unhealthy lifestyle that affect the health of intestine and affect the ecosystem of gut microbiota (GM). Consumption of probiotics help to maintain the ecosystem of GM to stay balance and healthy. L. plantarum Dad-13 is potential probiotics for Indonesians to maintain health of the gastrointestinal ecosystem. This research was conducted to investigate and determine the effect of consumption of indigenous probiotic L. plantarum Dad-13 powder in overweight adults in Yogyakarta (Indonesia). The results show decreasing body mass index and weight on overweight subject and increasing of Bacteroidetes specifically Prevotella.