Published online Nov 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i44.6909
Peer-review started: July 28, 2020
First decision: September 30, 2020
Revised: October 14, 2020
Accepted: October 27, 2020
Article in press: October 27, 2020
Published online: November 28, 2020
Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by thinning or disappearance of the pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and an ectopic posterior pituitary. Although the etiology of PSIS is still unclear, gene changes and perinatal adverse events such as breech delivery may play important roles in the pathogenesis of PSIS. PSIS can cause multiple hormone deficiencies, such as growth hormone, which then cause a series of changes in the human body. On the one hand, hormone changes affect growth and development, and on the other hand, they could affect human metabolism and subsequently the liver resulting in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Under the synergistic effect of multiple mechanisms, the progression of NAFLD caused by PSIS is faster than that due to other causes. Therefore, in addition to early identification of PSIS, timely hormone replacement therapy and monitoring of relevant hormone levels, clinicians should routinely assess the liver function while managing PSIS.
Core Tip: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) characterized by thinning or disappearance of the pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and an ectopic posterior pituitary, could cause isolated pituitary hormone deficiency or combined pituitary hormone deficiency. In addition to influencing the growth and development of humans, PSIS could also lead to liver changes such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through many mechanisms. As a result, it is important to assess liver function of patients with PSIS.