Published online Jan 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i4.404
Peer-review started: November 1, 2019
First decision: December 23, 2019
Revised: January 9, 2020
Accepted: January 15, 2020
Article in press: January 15, 2020
Published online: January 28, 2020
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Asia. Numerous risk factors associated with IBD development have been investigated.
To investigate trends and environmental risk factors of Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosed in persons aged ≥ 40 years in South Korea.
Using the National Health Insurance Service database, a total of 14060821 persons aged > 40 years who underwent national health screening in 2009 were followed up until December 2017. Patients with newly diagnosed CD were enrolled and compared with non-CD cohort. CD was identified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision and the rare/intractable disease registration program codes from the National Health Insurance Service database. The mean follow-up periods was 7.39 years. Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, body mass index, anemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dyslipidemia were adjusted for in the multivariate analysis model.
During the follow-up, 1337 (1.33/100000) patients developed CD. Men in the middle-aged group (40-64 years) had a higher risk than women [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.66]; however, this difference tended to disappear as the age of onset increases. In the middle-aged group, patients with a history of smoking [aHR 1.46, 95%CI: 1.19-1.79) and anemia (aHR 1.85, 95%CI: 1.55-2.20) had a significantly higher CD risk. In the elderly group (age, ≥ 65 years), ex-smoking and anemia also increased the CD risk (aHR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.22-2.30) and 1.84 (95%CI: 1.47-2.30, respectively). Especially in the middle-aged group, those with CKD had a statistically elevated CD risk (aHR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.05-1.79). Alcohol consumption and higher body mass index showed negative association trend with CD incidence in both of the age groups. [Middle-aged: aHR 0.77 (95%CI: 0.66-0.89) and aHR 0.73 (95%CI: 0.63-0.84), respectively] [Elderly-group: aHR 0.57 (95%CI: 0.42-0.78) and aHR 0.84 (95%CI 0.67-1.04), respectively]. For regular physical activity and dyslipidemia, negative correlation between CD incidences was proved only in the middle-aged group [aHR 0.88 (95%CI: 0.77-0.89) and aHR 0.81 (95%CI: 0.68-0.96), respectively].
History of cigarette smoking, anemia, underweight and CKD are possible risk factors for CD in Asians aged > 40 years.
Core tip: As the population becomes older, clinicians may encounter more cases of older-onset inflammatory bowel disease in the future. We tried to investigate trends and environmental risk factors of Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosed in persons aged ≥ 40 years in South Korea using nationwide population-based cohort. Along with previously valued risk factors (ex-smoking, anemia and underweight), those with chronic kidney diseases were at risk of developing CD especially in the middle-aged group. Furthermore, alcohol consumption, physical activity and dyslipidemia were demonstrated to be in association with decreased incidence of late-onset Asian CDs.