Published online Aug 7, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i29.4288
Peer-review started: April 11, 2020
First decision: May 21, 2020
Revised: July 4, 2020
Accepted: July 15, 2020
Article in press: July 15, 2020
Published online: August 7, 2020
Hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is an important type of liver failure in Asia. There is a direct relationship between HBV-ACLF and gastrointestinal barrier function. However, the nutritional status of HBV-ACLF patients has been poorly studied.
To investigate the nutritional risk and nutritional status of HBV-ACLF patients and evaluated the impact of nutritional support on the gastrointestinal barrier and 28-d mortality.
Nutritional risk screening assessment and gastrointestinal barrier biomarkers of patients with HBV-ACLF (n = 234) and patients in the compensatory period of liver cirrhosis (the control group) (n = 234) were compared during the period between 2016 and 2018. Changes were analyzed after nutritional support in HBV-ACLF patients. Valuable biomarkers have been explored to predict 28-d death. The 28-d survival between HBV-ACLF patients with nutritional support (n = 234) or no nutritional support (2014-2016) (n = 207) was compared.
The nutritional risk of the HBV-ACLF patients was significantly higher than that of the control group. The nutritional intake of the patients with HBV-ACLF was lower than that of the control group. The decrease in skeletal muscle and fat content and the deficiency of fat intake were more obvious (P < 0.001). The coccus-bacillus ratio, secretory immunoglobulin A, and serum D-lactate were significantly increased in HBV-ACLF patients. The survival group had a lower nutritional risk, lower D-lactate, and cytokine levels (endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1). Interleukin-10 may be a potential predictor of death in HBV-ACLF patients. The 28-d survival of the nutritional support group was better than that of the non-nutritional support group (P = 0.016).
Patients with HBV-ACLF have insufficient nutritional intake and high nutritional risk, and their intestinal barrier function is impaired. Individualized and dynamic nutritional support is associated with a better prognosis of 28-d mortality in HBV-ACLF patients.
Core tip: In this study, we investigated the nutritional risk, nutritional status, and the biomarkers of the gastrointestinal barrier in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). We found poor nutritional intake and high nutritional risk, with some markers of impaired gastrointestinal barrier function, in HBV-ACLF patients. Blood cytokines, endotoxin, and D-lactate seemed potential predictors of death. Individualized and dynamic nutritional support was associated with a better prognosis of 28-d mortality. Moreover, nutritional support can also improve the gastrointestinal barrier function in survivors. Thus, nutritional status is not only the prognostic factor but also the therapeutic target in HBV-ACLF.