Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 7, 2020; 26(29): 4261-4271
Published online Aug 7, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i29.4261
Gadoxetic acid magnetic-enhanced resonance imaging in the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma
Riccardo Inchingolo, Cesare Maino, Marco Gatti, Eleonora Tricarico, Michele Nardella, Luigi Grazioli, Sandro Sironi, Davide Ippolito, Riccardo Faletti
Riccardo Inchingolo, Eleonora Tricarico, Michele Nardella, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Madonna delle Grazie Hospital, Matera 75100, Italy
Cesare Maino, Davide Ippolito, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza 20900, Italy
Marco Gatti, Riccardo Faletti, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy
Luigi Grazioli, Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili, University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy
Sandro Sironi, Department of radiology, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Bergamo 20110, Italy
Author contributions: All authors equally contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing, and final approval of the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors are aware of the content of the manuscript and have no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Riccardo Inchingolo, MD, Doctor, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Madonna delle Grazie Hospital, Contrada Cattedra Ambulante, Matera 75100, Italy.
Received: March 3, 2020
Peer-review started: March 3, 2020
First decision: April 9, 2020
Revised: June 16, 2020
Accepted: July 22, 2020
Article in press: July 22, 2020
Published online: August 7, 2020

The use of liver magnetic resonance imaging is increasing thanks to its multiparametric sequences that allow a better tissue characterization, and the use of hepatobiliary contrast agents. This review aims to evaluate gadoxetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma and its different clinical and radiological classifications proposed in the literature. We also analyze the epidemiology, risk factors in correlation with clinical findings and laboratory data.

Keywords: Hepatobiliary contrast materials, Gadoxetic acid, Cholangiocarcinoma, Magnetic resonance imaging, Liver, Cirrhosis

Core tip: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging, with its multiparametric study, with the use of cholangiographic sequences and with the hepatospecific contrast medium can allow a complete diagnostic evaluation, with a correct non-invasive staging, to choose the best therapeutic option.