Published online Apr 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i16.1901
Peer-review started: December 31, 2019
First decision: January 13, 2020
Revised: March 26, 2020
Accepted: April 4, 2020
Article in press: April 4, 2020
Published online: April 28, 2020
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent metabolic disorder with steadily increasing incidence rates worldwide, especially in the West. There are no drugs available at present to treat NAFLD, and the primary therapeutic options include weight loss and the combination of healthy diet and exercise. Therefore, novel interventions are required that can target the underlying risk factors. Gut microbiota is an “invisible organ” of the human body and vital for normal metabolism and immuno-modulation. The number and diversity of microbes differ across the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is most abundant in the intestine. Since dysregulated gut microbiota is an underlying pathological factor of NAFLD, it is a viable therapeutic target that can be modulated by antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and microbial metabolites. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies against NAFLD in clinical and experimental studies, and critically evaluate novel targets and strategies for treating NAFLD.
Core tip: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and the gut microbiota-derived components and metabolites.