Published online Feb 14, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i6.707
Peer-review started: October 14, 2018
First decision: November 7, 2018
Revised: December 31, 2018
Accepted: January 9, 2019
Article in press: January 9, 2019
Published online: February 14, 2019
It is widely recognized that endoscopic resection (ER) of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs) is technically challenging and may carry high risks of intraoperative and delayed bleeding and perforation. These adverse events could be more critical than those occurring in other levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Because of the low prevalence of the disease and the high risks of severe adverse events, the curability including short- and long-term outcomes have not been standardized yet.
To investigate the curability including short- and long-term outcomes of ER for SNADETs in a large case series.
This retrospective study included cases that underwent ER for SNADETs at our university hospital between March 2004 and July 2017. Short-term outcomes of ER were measured based on en bloc and R0 resection rates as well as adverse events. Long-term outcomes included local recurrence detected on endoscopic surveillance and disease-specific mortality in patients followed up for ≥ 12 mo after ER.
In the study, 131 patients with 147 SNADETs were analyzed. The 147 ERs consisted of 136 endoscopic mucosal resections (EMRs) (93%) and 11 endoscopic submucosal dissections (ESDs) (7%). The median tumor diameter was 10 mm. The pathology diagnosis was adenocarcinoma (56/147, 38%), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (44/147, 30%), or low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (47/147, 32%). The R0 resection rate was 68% (93/136) in the EMR group and 73% (8/11) in the ESD group, respectively. Cap-assisted EMR (known as EMR-C) showed a higher rate of R0 resection compared to the conventional method of EMR using a snare (78% vs 62%, P = 0.06). No adverse event was observed in the EMR group, whereas delayed bleeding, intraoperative perforation, and delayed perforation in 3, 3, and 5 patients occurred in the ESD group, respectively. One patient with perforation required emergency surgery. In the 43 mo median follow-up period, local recurrence was found in four EMR cases and all cases were treated endoscopically. No patient died due to tumor recurrence.
Our findings suggest that ER provides good long-term outcomes in the patients with SNADETs. EMR is likely to become the safe and reliable treatment for small SNADETs.
Core tip: Endoscopic resection (ER) in the duodenum remains a challenging technique owing to the anatomical peculiarity associated with the procedure and the high frequency of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate the curability, including long-term outcomes, related to ER for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs) in a large case series. In contrast to endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was not associated with any adverse events. Nevertheless, ER is expected to provide good long-term outcomes in patients with SNADETs. In conclusion, EMR should be considered as standard treatment for small lesions of SNADETs; however, ESD remains challenging.