Randomized Clinical Trial
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 21, 2019; 25(11): 1421-1431
Published online Mar 21, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i11.1421
Khubchandani’s procedure combined with stapled posterior rectal wall resection for rectocele
Yi Shao, Yong-Xing Fu, Qing-Fa Wang, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu
Yi Shao, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu, Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China
Yong-Xing Fu, Qing-Fa Wang, Department of Neonatal Medicine, Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang, Weifang 262500, Shandong Province, China
Author contributions: Shao Y, Cheng ZQ, Zhang GY, and Hu SY designed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper; Shao Y, Cheng ZQ, and Hu SY performed the surgery and treated the patients; Shao Y, Fu YX, and Wang QF did the follow-up and collected and analyzed the patient data; Hu SY approved the final manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Scientific Research of Shandong University Qilu Hospital.
Clinical trial registration statement: This study is registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR1900020992.
Informed consent statement: In this study, all involved participants or their legal guardian provided written informed consent before entering the trial.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No authors of this paper have conflicting interests.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
CONSORT 2010 statement: The guidelines of the CONSORT 2010 Statement have been adopted.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which selected by an inhouse editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: San-Yuan Hu, MD, PhD, Chief Doctor, Professor, Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, No. 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China. husanyuan1962@hotmail.com
Telephone: +86-531-82166351 Fax: +86-531-82166351
Received: January 30, 2019
Peer-review started: January 30, 2019
First decision: February 13, 2019
Revised: February 17, 2019
Accepted: February 22, 2019
Article in press: February 22, 2019
Published online: March 21, 2019

Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is a widespread disease in the world. Rectocele is the most common cause of ODS in females. Multiple procedures have been performed to treat rectocele and no procedure has been accepted as the gold-standard procedure. Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) has been widely used. However, there are still some disadvantages in this procedure and its effectiveness in anterior wall repair is doubtful. Therefore, new procedures are expected to further improve the treatment of rectocele.


To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel rectocele repair combining Khubchandani’s procedure with stapled posterior rectal wall resection.


A cohort of 93 patients were recruited in our randomized clinical trial and were divided into two different groups in a randomized manner. Forty-two patients (group A) underwent Khubchandani’s procedure with stapled posterior rectal wall resection and 51 patients (group B) underwent the STARR procedure. Follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after the operation. Preoperative and postoperative ODS scores and depth of rectocele, postoperative complications, blood loss, and hospital stay of each patient were documented. All data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the efficiency and safety of our procedure.


In group A, 42 patients underwent Khubchandani’s procedure with stapled posterior rectal wall resection and 34 were followed until the final analysis. In group B, 51 patients underwent the STARR procedure and 37 were followed until the final analysis. Mean operative duration was 41.47 ± 6.43 min (group A) vs 39.24 ± 6.53 min (group B). Mean hospital stay was 3.15 ± 0.70 d (group A) vs 3.14 ± 0.54 d (group B). Mean blood loss was 10.91 ± 2.52 mL (group A) vs 10.14 ± 1.86 mL (group B). Mean ODS score in group A declined from 16.50 ± 2.06 before operation to 5.06 ± 1.07 one year after the operation, whereas in group B it was 17.11 ± 2.57 before operation and 6.03 ± 2.63 one year after the operation. Mean depth of rectocele decreased from 4.32 ± 0.96 cm (group A) vs 4.18 ± 0.95 cm (group B) preoperatively to 1.19 ± 0.43 cm (group A) vs 1.54 ± 0.82 cm (group B) one year after operation. No other serious complications, such as rectovaginal fistula, perianal sepsis, or deaths, were recorded. After 12 mo of follow-up, 30 patients’ (30/34, 88.2%) final outcomes were judged as effective and 4 (4/34, 11.8%) as moderate in group A, whereas in group B, 30 (30/37, 81.1%) patients’ outcomes were judged as effective, 5 (5/37, 13.5%) as moderate, and 2 (2/37, 5.4%) as poor.


Khubchandani’s procedure combined with stapled posterior rectal wall resection is an effective, feasible, and safe procedure with minor trauma to rectocele.

Keywords: Rectocele, Rectal prolapse, Obstructed defecation syndrome, Khubchandani’s procedure, Stapled posterior rectal wall resection, Stapled transanal rectal resection

Core tip: Rectocele is one of most common causes of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) in females. A diversity of procedures has been performed to treat rectocele. Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) is more often used among all the procedures for its simpleness. However, it is not the gold-standard procedure since its effect of anterior wall repair is doubted. We performed a novel procedure combining Khubchandani’s procedure and stapled posterior wall resection to treat rectocele. We compared the ODS score, rectocele depth, and complications between our procedure and STARR. Our procedure was proved to be safe and effective for treating rectocele.