Minireviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 28, 2018; 24(16): 1734-1747
Published online Apr 28, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i16.1734
Diversion colitis and pouchitis: A mini-review
Kentaro Tominaga, Kenya Kamimura, Kazuya Takahashi, Junji Yokoyama, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
Kentaro Tominaga, Kenya Kamimura, Kazuya Takahashi, Junji Yokoyama, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
Author contributions: Tominaga K and Kamimura K wrote the manuscript; Takahashi K, Yokoyama J, Yamagiwa S and Terai S collected information; all authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no current financial arrangement or affiliation with any organization that may have a direct influence on their work.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Kenya Kamimura, MD, PhD, Lecturer, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8510, Japan. kenya-k@med.niigata-u.ac.jp
Telephone: +81-25-2272207 Fax: +81-25-2270776
Received: March 12, 2018
Peer-review started: March 13, 2018
First decision: March 30, 2018
Revised: April 1, 2018
Accepted: April 16, 2018
Article in press: April 16, 2018
Published online: April 28, 2018
Abstract

Diversion colitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa in the defunctioned segment of the colon after colostomy or ileostomy. Similar to diversion colitis, diversion pouchitis is an inflammatory disorder occurring in the ileal pouch, resulting from the exclusion of the fecal stream and a subsequent lack of nutrients from luminal bacteria. Although the vast majority of patients with surgically-diverted gastrointestinal tracts remain asymptomatic, it has been reported that diversion colitis and pouchitis might occur in almost all patients with diversion. Surgical closure of the stoma, with reestablishment of gut continuity, is the only curative intervention available for patients with diversion disease. Pharmacologic treatments using short-chain fatty acids, mesalamine, or corticosteroids are reportedly effective for those who are not candidates for surgical reestablishment; however, there are no established assessment criteria for determining the severity of diversion colitis, and no management strategies to date. Therefore, in this mini-review, we summarize and review various recently-reported treatments for diversion disease. We are hopeful that the information summarized here will assist physicians who treat patients with diversion colitis and pouchitis, leading to better case management.

Keywords: Diversion colitis, Diversion pouchitis, Ileitis, Inflammatory bowel disease

Core tip: Diversion colitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa in the defunctioned segment of the colon after colostomy or ileostomy. The vast majority of diverted patients remain asymptomatic, however diversion colitis occurs in almost all diverted patients. Pharmacologic treatment using short-chain fatty acids, mesalamine, or corticosteroids are reportedly effective for those who are not candidates for surgical reestablishment; however, there are no established assessment criteria for determining the severity of diversion colitis, and no management strategies to date. In this mini-review, we summarize and review various recently-reported diversion disease treatments. We hope this review will be useful for future treatment.