Published online Feb 14, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i6.931
Peer-review started: September 1, 2016
First decision: September 20, 2016
Revised: October 6, 2016
Accepted: November 12, 2016
Article in press: November 13, 2016
Published online: February 14, 2017
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of superficial esophageal cancer has been increasingly used as an alternative to surgery because it is minimally invasive and has a high rate of en bloc resection. However, a high rate of esophageal stricture is observed after ESD for large lesions, which can dramatically decrease the patient’s quality of life. Stricture prevention is necessary to allow for endoscopic therapy to expand. We, herein, review the most recent evidence and discuss the role of the metallic self-expandable stent and the biodegradable stent in esophageal stricture prevention. Limited studies suggested that prophylactic stenting could reduce the stricture rate without increasing the number of complications. In addition, the number of bougie dilation procedures was significantly lower with stent placement. Esophageal stenting is a promising option for post-ESD stricture prevention. However, current evidence is too preliminary to formulate practice standards. Future studies are needed to further validate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic stenting and determine the best strategy for stricture prevention. Stent migration is the most common complication. A new stent that has advantages of a low migration rate and minimal tissue reaction will need to be developed. Therefore, randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up periods are required before prophylactic stenting could be considered a valid option to prevent post-ESD stricture.
Core tip: Esophageal stenting is a promising option for esophageal stricture prevention. Current evidence is too preliminary to formulate practice standards. Randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up periods and cost-effective studies are required before prophylactic stenting could be considered a valid option to prevent post-endoscopic submucosal dissection stricture.