Published online Sep 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i33.7440
Peer-review started: March 27, 2016
First decision: May 12, 2016
Revised: June 30, 2016
Accepted: August 1, 2016
Article in press: August 1, 2016
Published online: September 7, 2016
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is one of the most deadly malignant neoplasms, and the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is far from satisfactory. Recent research studies have revealed that immunosuppression and inflammation are associated with oncogenesis, as well as tumor development, invasion, and metastasis in PAC. Thus, immunosuppression-related signaling, especially that involving immune checkpoint and inflammation, has emerged as novel treatment targets for PAC. However, PAC is an immune-resistant tumor, and it is still unclear whether immune checkpoint or anti-inflammation therapies would be an ideal strategy. In this article, we will review immune checkpoint and inflammation as potential targets, as well as clinical trials and the prospects for immunotherapy in PAC.
Core tip: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is recognized as one of the most malignant neoplasms, and more efficacious treatment is desired earnestly. Recent research studies have revealed that the development and progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are highly influenced by immune responses, and inflammation is a critical promoter of the disease. In this article, we highlighted the emergence of immunosuppression-related signaling associated with immune checkpoint and inflammation, as a novel treatment target for cancer. Furthermore, the review demonstrated that the current focus on therapeutic strategies involving combination chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and anti-inflammation therapy might provide considerably more clinical benefits to patients than current therapies.